- Warming taste of ethanol and higher alcohols. Can be described as spicy and vinous in character. The higher the ABV of a beer, often the larger the mouthfeel it has. Alcohol can be perceived in aroma, flavor and as a sensation.
- A person with a disabling disorder characterized by compulsive uncontrolled consumption of alcoholic beverages.
A collagen extract from sturgeon and other fish swim bladders and used as a fining aid to settle yeast in conditioning of beer and in cask conditioned beer. The natural extract is hydrolysed by acid to release particles of highly positively charged collagen proteins which bind strongly to negatively charged yeast cells. Clarification is also enhanced by the production of a dense mesh work of fibers and cells which settles rapidly under gravity.[/lvca_panel][/lvca_accordion]
n – The rocky head of foam which appears on the surface of the wort during fermentation.
v – A method of conditioning in which a small quantity of unfermented wort is added to a fully fermented beer to create a secondary fermentation and natural carbonation.[/lvca_panel][/lvca_accordion]
- A 1.5L bottle.
- A German variety of hops (also grown in the US) and daughter of Galena. It is a high alpha cultivar and is often used for the base bittering.
The first major stage in the brewing process where malt and liquor are mixed and left to incubate at set temperature(s). Starch is digested to simple sugars and many compounds are released from the malt to enrich the wort. Infusion mashing maintains a constant temperature, generally between 60 and 68oC while temperature programmed and decoction mashing increases the temperature in steps from 35 oC to 45 oC to 65 oC and finishing at 75oC to curtain enzyme activity. Temperature programmed mashing is most suitable for poorly modified malt and allows rests at temperatures optimal for the digestion of b glucans, protein and starch respectively.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a20730f541″ panel_title=”Mercaptans”]Distinctive flavor compounds with the aroma of skunk. Produced by the photolysis of a side chain of iso a acids and the subsequent reaction of this with sulphur containing thiol radicals to produce 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol. Exposing beer to light, particularly by using clear glass bottles, will initiate this reaction although specially treated hop oil, Tetra hop, will stabilise the iso a acid.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a2127acf9e” panel_title=”Modified Malts”]Modified Malts refers to the length of the germination process and how many of the internal malt structures and compounds have already been broken down.[/lvca_panel][/lvca_accordion]
A major brewing ingredient providing sugars for yeast fermentation. Usually derived from barley although other grains such as wheat, oats and rye may also be malted. Malted grains are softened by enzyme action during malting producing a modified grain. This softening results from digestion of cell wall material and exposes the starch for full digestion in mashing.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a1e552e8b4″ panel_title=”Maltose”]
A major disaccharide sugar produced by digestion of starch in mashing. b amylase specifically hydrolyses the non reducing end of starch chains to release maltose which comprises between 40 and 50% of the total sugar produced by the digestion. Composed of two glucose bound together maltose is readily fermented by yeast.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a1f2089ea3″ panel_title=”Mashing Out”]The process of raising the mash temperature to 170F. The goal being to halt any enzymatic activity and prevent further conversion of starches to sugars.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a20dc54390″ panel_title=”Microbrewery”]As defined by the Brewers Association: A brewery that produces less than 15,000 barrels of beer per year with 75% or more of its beer sold off-site.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a2143766ed” panel_title=”Mouthfeel”]The textures one perceives in a beer. Includes carbonation, fullness and aftertaste.[/lvca_panel][/lvca_accordion]
Milling crushes grains before mashing and so exposes the internal contents to the mash liquor and enhances dissolving and digestion by enzymes. Mills crush grain between two, four or six rollers running in opposite directions and are set to break open the grain but not to crush it into flour. Part crushing is particularly important to ensure that the husk is retained to provide the filter bed for separating wort at the end of mashing.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a216c716bf” panel_title=”Musty”]Moldy, mildewy character that can be the result of cork or bacterial infection in a beer. It can be perceived in both taste and aroma.[/lvca_panel][/lvca_accordion]
A large scale means of separating the mash solids from the wort at the end of mashing. Mash filters compress the mash in a large press allowing wort through filter cloth and retaining solids. Extraction of sugars may be more efficient than standard mash tun separation but the wort may be cloudier. Really only applicable to bulk production due to the high capital cost of the equipment.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a20464bb45″ panel_title=”Melanoidins”]Darkly pigmented compounds produced by the combination of simple sugars and amino acids. This reaction is accelerated by heating and mostly occurs during boiling. A range of melanoidins is produced from the different sugars and amino acids in the wort and also depends on the time of boiling. Melanoidins are good oxygen scavengers and can protect wort against oxidation and staling.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a2102930e7″ panel_title=”Modification “]The physical and chemical changes in barley that result from malting, especially the development of enzymes that are required to modify the grain’s starches into sugars during mashing, and also the physical changes that render the carbohydrate found in barley kernels more available to the brewing process. The degrees to which these changes have occurred, as determined by the growth of the acrospire.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a2196aff48″ panel_title=”Myrcene”]One of the essential oils made in the flowering cone of the hops plant Humulus lupulus.[/lvca_panel][/lvca_accordion]
An organic acid released into wort from barley and other grains. Can complex with calcium to produce precipitated crystals of calcium oxalate.[/lvca_panel][/lvca_accordion]
Paraflow heat exchangers are used to heat or cool bulk volumes of beer. They are typically constructed of a series of parallel plates of stainless steel with wort or beer running across one side and chilled water or steam across the other. The rate of heat exchange is a function of the flow rate of the product passing through.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a0d4b4b274″ panel_title=”Phenols”]Cyclic organic compounds present in wort and often possessing distinctive flavors. Aromatic alcohol phenols are produced by yeast fermentation and may give beer a floral character above 200 mg per liter. Other phenols are less attractive. Chlorophenols produced by the reaction of phenol with chlorine are very pungently medicinal at very low levels. Spicy, clove like flavors are produced by the decarboxylation of the phenol ferulic acid from malt into 4-vinyl guaiacol. This reaction is catalysed by wild yeasts but not brewing yeasts and indicates possible contamination of yeast or beer. It is, however, a desirable feature of wheat beers which thus require an appropriate yeast for an authentic production[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a0ed485824″ panel_title=”Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)”]A molecular biology procedure whereby a single piece of DNA may be extracted from a sample and multiplied extensively to demonstrate the presence of a particular gene or organism. Currently being developed as an identification procedure for yeasts and beer contaminants but also to distinguish barley and hop varieties.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a0fb104284″ panel_title=”Proteolytic enzymes”]Enzymes found in malt which digest proteins into polypeptides and amino acids. They are very active in malting where much of the barley protein is digested. In poorly modified malt it may be necessary to further digest protein in mashing by a temperature infusion at 50-55oC to avoid beer hazes from excess protein remaining in the wort.[/lvca_panel][/lvca_accordion]
A coccus variety of lactic acid bacteria with the ability to produce high levels of lactic acid and so readily spoil wort and beer. As with all lactic acid bacteria Pediococci are non-spore forming and gram negative. Unlike other lactic acid bacteria they are spherical in shape and are often distinguished by their diploid or tetrad arrangements of cells.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a0e9b523b9″ panel_title=”Plato – degrees of measurement”]Plato units relate wort strength to the concentration of sugar in solution rather than the density. 1o Plato is equivalent to 1 gram of sucrose dissolved in distilled water. For comparison a wort with a specific gravity of 1040 will be 10o Plato.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a0f1619b35″ panel_title=”Protease”]Proteolytic enzyme which breaks down high molecular weight proteins into lower molecular weight. Proteases in malt are active during the protein rest at 40°C.-55°C. in the mash. Commercial proteases of plant, fungi, or bacterial origin are used in the brewhouse to supplement malt protease and more prominently in the cellar to chillproof the beer.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a0fec77ead” panel_title=”Pycnometer”]A narrow mouth flask used for determining the specific gravity of wort or beer.[/lvca_panel][/lvca_accordion]
The wooden plug sealing the top of a cask. The shive contains a central plug which is opened to the air before dispense. Wooden pegs called spiles are inserted in the center of the shive to control air inlet and gas release from the beer. Porous spiles allow air through but reduce contamination from particles and are used during the serving period. Impermeable, hard spiles are used to temporarily seal the cask between serving periods.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a005894974″ panel_title=”Sorghum”]A cereal grain from various tropical cereal grasses (Sorghum vulgare), which is used as a grain for those who are gluten intolerant.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a0117603e9″ panel_title=”Spent grains”]The solids remaining at the end of sparging. Consisting of husks, barley embryo, roots and shoots, undissolved starch grains and precipitated proteins and tannins. Spent grains are typically used as animal feed or for composting but may have occasional uses in foods such as biscuits and beer bread.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a04258936e” panel_title=”Starch”]
The major storage polysaccharide in barley endosperm cells. Produced by the polymerisation of glucose molecules starch has two molecular species, the linear polymer amylase (around 20%) and the branched polymer amylopectin (around 80%). Starch molecules are condensed into rigid starch grains during growth of the barley grain. These grains provide an inert energy store for when the grain germinates and are of two types, small grains 1-5m diameter and large grains 10-25m diameter. Mashing rapidly dissolves the small grains but most dissolved starch derives from the larger grains.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a0706452f3″ panel_title=”Step Infusion”]A mashing method wherein the temperature of the mash is raised by adding very hot water, and then stirring and stabilizing the mash at the target step temperature.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a07c411779″ panel_title=”Sunstruck beer”]
Beer which has been photolysed by light. The photolysis releases a side chain of iso a acids and the subsequent reaction of this with sulphur containing thiol radicals to produce 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol which has the characteristic smell of skunk.[/lvca_panel][/lvca_accordion]
Malt which has absorbed water and become soft and stale.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a79feb9e460b” panel_title=”Sparging”]In lautering sparging is washing of grains at the end of mashing to remove residual sugars and maximize extract. Sparging consists of spraying the spent mash grains with hot water to retrieve the liquid malt sugar and extract remaining in the grain husks. Ideally using treated liquor at 77oC to reduce viscosity and terminate enzyme activity. [/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a03e389c30″ panel_title=”Spiles”]Small, wooden pegs or plugs, used to close vent holes in barrels[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a0589897bf” panel_title=”Sterols”]Lipids which are essential for yeast membrane growth. Sterols contribute to the flexibility of yeast membranes and require oxygen for their synthesis by the yeast cell. Although yeast may multiply extensively without oxygen during fermentation they must be exposed to oxygen before a further pitching so that they have an opportunity to produce sterols. This will typically happen during cropping but many brewers aerate their collected worts before fermentation to ensure that their yeast is fully prepared.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a7a07798ce5f” panel_title=”Strike temperature”]The temperature of the brewing liquor which is added to the mash. This is typically between 75 and 80oC to compensate for the lower temperature of the mash and adjusted to achieve a final temperature in the mash of 60-70oC. A high strike temperature is also desirable to swell and gelatinise the starch grains and so expose them to digestive amylase enzymes.[/lvca_panel][/lvca_accordion]
A storage sugar found in yeast and providing energy reserves and stress protection. High levels (15% of dry weight) may develop towards the end of fermentation in preparation for dormancy before the next exposure to sugars and subsequent fermentation. Trehalose acts like glycogen in providing readily available energy but is unique in becoming intimately associated with cell membranes to stabilize them against stress conditions such as high temperature, high ethanol levels and desiccation.[/lvca_panel][lvca_panel panel_id=”panel-5a79f43b34ea5″ panel_title=”Turbidity”]Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. The measurement of turbidity is a key test of water quality.[/lvca_panel][/lvca_accordion]
- A large brewer’s fermenting vat or cask for holding liquids, especially wine or beer.
- An imperial measure of liquid capacity, usually equivalent to 252 gallons or equal to 4 hogsheads.
The standard measurement of packaged hops. One zentner of whole leaf hops is equivalent to 50Kg.[/lvca_panel][/lvca_accordion]
- The branch of chemistry that deals with fermentation processes, as in brewing.
- The name of the American Homebrewers Association bi-monthly magazine.