Additives

Traditionally brewing is a natural process that typically does not use additives that can be found in many modern foods. The majority of beers brewed today are essentially additive-free, although modern chemistry does sometimes does end up being used in the brewhouse. Additives that can be found in use at the brewery can be categorized according to their purpose of use such as technical aids like salts and acids for water treatment, enzymes, finings, and chemical stabilizers used for lasting clarity of filtered beers, etc.

ABV Allfine

ABV Allfine is a purified and standardized fish collagen. A free-flowing white powder, normally added as the beer is transferred from fermenter to storage. Allfine does not require any additional filtration.

ABV Compac Powder

ABV (formally Allfloc) is an Enhanced Kappa Carrageenan (red seaweed) powder used to improve filter efficiency, produce brighter beer, and improve insoluble separation at low and high temperatures.

Accumash™

Water—the single most important ingredient to making style-specific beer, Accumash™ alters the strike water profile to deliver the perfect pH and mineral/ion content. Added to the mash right after the grain.

Alginex

Alginex is a polysaccharide based auxiliary fining agent which is used in conjunction with isinglass. Alginex when used with isinglass produces a more complete reaction, which results in a brighter cask beer.

Amylase Enzyme

Amylase Enzyme is typically used by all-grain brewers to add to a high adjunct mash that may be low in enzymes to aid in converting starches into sugar. This enzyme can also prevent starch haze in beer.

Antiox C

Antiox C provides dual protection from oxygen for beer. Immediate acting, the antioxidant, potassium metabisulphite component, immediately combines with dissolved oxygen. Added following fermentation.

Ascorbic Acid

Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C) is used in beer and wine making to help prevent oxidation. Oxidation creates a cardboard, flat, and dull flavor in the final product, and it also tends to create the browning seen in white wines.

Attenuzyme® Flex

Attenuzyme® Flex is a combination of glucoamylase, specific alphaamylase and pullulanase enzymes that can be added at the beginning of the main mashing to achieve a higher target degree of attenuation.

AYF Yeast Nutrient

AYF is a superbly balanced yeast food for the brewing industry. It provides an optimal set of vitamins, proteins & minerals to maximize yeast action and fermentation rate, and provide enhanced attenuation.

Baking Soda (NaHCO3)

Baking Soda or Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) may be used as a water mineral to adjust brewing water's pH for mashing by adding alkalinity, but its usage should be limited if the sodium content of the brewing water is a concern.

Bentonite

Bentonite is a naturally occurring mineral fining agent or clarifier that absorbs haze forming proteins and other suspended matter. Used during secondary fermentation about 1 week before bottling or kegging.

Biofine Clear®

Biofine Clear is a clarifying agent designed to drop yeast and haze-forming particles out of the beer, making the beer bright and clear within a day or two of adding. It is a vegan solution of colloidal silicon dioxide (SiO2).

Biofine® P019

Biofine® P019 is a refined isinglass collagen with an active ingredient, a protein called collagen, that is a large molecule which will attract the much smaller negatively charged yeast, precipitating them out.

Biofoam® K

Biofoam® K—the trade name for a specially prepared food grade Propylene Glycol Alginate— is the propylene glycol ester of Alginic acid, a linear polymer of 1-4Beta D-Mannuronic acid and 1-4Alpha L-Guluronic acid residues extracted from marine brown algae (Phaeophycaeae).

Bioglucanase

Bioglucanase is a high performance glucanase enzyme system derived from Trichoderma reesei which contains hemicellulase side activities. It is used to improve run-off and filtration for grists containing high molecular weight glucan, or grists containing a portion of unmalted grains.

Brewers Clarex®, DSM

Brewers Clarex® is a one-of-kind beer stabilization technology that eliminates cold stabilization process. Its main ingredient is Proline Specific Endo-protease which is ideal for gluten reduced beer production.

Britesorb A100 Hydrogel

Silica Hydrogel, an amorphous silica powder, has a moisture content of approximately 65%. Britesorb A100's surface is engineered to selectively allow the adsorption of haze-forming proteins while preventing larger foam-positive proteins.

Britesorb D300 Xerogel

Silica Xerogel is an amorphous powder of approximately 5% moisture content. More effective stabilizer than Silica Hydrogel, the D300 utilizes the same adsorption as A100, but it's patented process increases its sensitive protein affinity.

Burton Water Salt

Burton Water salt or brewing salt is a mixture of Gypsum, Potassium Chloride and Epsom Salt. Commonly added in English-style pale ales and bitters to enhance flavors the same way that salt enhances food.

Calcium Carbonate CaCO3

Calcium Carbonate (precipitated chalk) is a tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature, which increases pH—reduces acidity— in the mash. Sometimes used for temporary hardness in dark beers, and traditionally used in English stouts, pale ales and bitters.

Calcium Chloride CaCl2

BSG Brewers’ Calcium Chloride is hydrated calcium chloride used to correct mineral deficiencies in water. Used in de-mineralized or soft to medium hard water to increase permanent hardness, and effective in eliminating variations in composition in water from surface sources.

Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH)2

Slaked/Pickling lime, aka calcium hydroxide, is used in brewing to reduce the waters alkalinity or pH. Since it can significantly change the water pH, it should be added to the mash water after the grain is added.

Campden Tablets

Campden Tablets or Potassium Metabisulphite is a sulfur-based product used to kill bacteria and inhibit the growth of wild yeast in the wort. Also used to eliminate both free chlorine, and chloramine, from municipal water solutions.

Chitosan

A clarifying agent typically used in conjunction with Kieselsol that takes 12-48 hours to make beer clear and brilliant. Chitosan is technically a kind of sugar, related to a natural shell-like substance called chitin.

Citric Acid C6H8O7

Citric acid can be used in sanitizing solutions to lower the pH, adjusting the total acid levels in beer, wine, mead, or cider. Requires careful use as when used in high quantities, it produces a very tart flavor.

Clarity Ferm

Manufactured by White Labs Clarity Ferm prevents chill haze by breaking down the proteins involved, and significantly reduces gluten content in wheat or Barley beers. Treated beers usually test below 20ppm gluten, the current gluten free standard.

Clearfine

Clearfine is a commercial blend of animal collagen and polysaccharides. Clearfine causes colloidal material such as phenols, haze-causing proteins, and tannins, to drop out of solution in the beer before the final bottling or kegging.

Compac CG

Compac CG (granules or tablets) is a semi-refined, granulated form of the seaweed species Euchema cottonii. Compac CG aids hot break compaction in the whirlpool and improves wort clarity resulting in reduced extract loss and improved beer filter-ability.

Convertase Amylo-300

Amylo 300 is an Amyloglucosidase enyzme derived from a strain of Aspergillus niger, used to break down complex starches and sugars so that yeast can ferment them. Allows for very low ending specific gravities and produces very dry beers.

Cryofine (CRY 151)

Cryofine is purified isinglass in convenient powder form. Added at the end of fermentation, it speeds maturation, improves filtration and clarity by fining out yeasts and protein particulate. Regularly used in cask conditioned beers as an auxiliary fining.

Diammonium Phosphate (NH4)2HPO4

Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) is a common yeast nutrient used to boost yeast reproduction and ensure healthy fermentation. A useful addition to yeast starters that also works well with white wines and mead which are typically lacking in natural nutrients.

Divergan® F & RS PVPP

Manufactured by BASF, Divergan® F is used worldwide to chill haze stabilize beer. BASF’s polymerization produces the purist PVPP, which adsorbs instabilities caused by polyphenols, and helps flavor stabilization through flavonoid polyphenols reduction.

Epsom Salt MgSO4(H2O)x

In Epsom Salt or Magnesium Sulfate the magnesium is used to lower the pH, and the sulphates used to add an increased "dryness" to the beer, emphasizing hoppy flavors and bitterness. In large amounts acts as a diuretic.

Fermaid® O

Fermaid® O is a certified organic autolyzed yeast nutrient with a high content of organic nitrogen (amino acids). Fermaid® O is a newer formulation of Fermaid K that replaces the inorganic DAP nutrient with an organic source of nitrogen.

Fermaid® K

Fermaid® K, a blended complex yeast nutrient that supplies ammonia salts (DAP), free amino acids, sterols, unsaturated fatty acids, and key yeast nutrients. Used in starters and main fermentation to give the yeast an added boost.

Fermax Yeast Nutrient

Fermax yeast nutrient is a blend of vitamin B's, minerals, organic nitrogen (amino acids), zinc, phosphates and other trace elements. Fermax will reduce lag time, assist yeast growth, improve carbohydrate uptake and provide consistent attenuation rates.

FermCap® S

FermCap® is a unique emulsion of an effective surface active agent Dimethylpolysiloxane which prevents foam formation by reducing surface tension. Used to control foam in kettle and during fermentation, it is completely removed after fermentation by the yeast and filtration.

Five Star Defoamer

Manufactured by Five Star, Defoamer or foam control is a 10% silicone food-grade emulsion designed to control foam in kettles and fermenters. Used as an easy way to reduce boil overs during both the boil and primary fermentation.

Five Star pH 5.2 Stabilizer

Five Star’s pH 5.2 Stabilizer is a proprietary blend of food grade phosphate buffer (similar to brewer's salts) that locks in your mash and kettle water at a pH of 5.2 regardless of the starting pH of your water.

Five Star Super Moss HB

Five Star's Super Moss is a negatively charged, red seaweed based, kapa and lambda carrageenan coagulant designed to attract and eliminate positively charged particles, and settling out chill haze-causing proteins in both the brew kettle and primary fermenter.

Fungal α-amylase

Fungal α-amylase allows the production of highly attenuated beer through degradation of limit dextrins by hydrolyzing them into fermentable sugars, mostly maltose. Fungal α-amylase helps ensure that starch conversion is complete during mashing, allowing expected final attenuation to be attained.

Gelatin

Gelatin is a collagen derived from animal sources with a large molecular weight containing a positive charge. When prepared and introduced to beer this positive charge attracts the smaller negatively charged yeast cells and aids in accelerated sedimentation.

Go-Ferm

Go-Ferm, a natural yeast nutrient, is added to the yeast hydration water before adding the selected yeast strain. Its complex formula provides the yeast with the proper sterols, unsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients needed to begin fermentation in optimal shape.

Gypsum (Calcium Sulfate)

Gypsum can be used for adding calcium when the water is low in sulfate. It can also add a sulfate like "crispness" to the hop bitterness. Most often used in brewing British style beers when the water source is soft.

Hitempase® 2XL

Used for effective liquefaction of starch in grists containing up to 100% unmalted cereal (0.05- 0.1% on weight of dry grist). Also used during wort boiling for the elimination of starch positive worts and to prevent alpha glucan hazes.

Irish Moss

Irish moss is a dried form of marine algae used as a fining agent in the post-boil that causes proteins to fall to the bottom, and thus reduces chill haze and improves beer clarity without needing filtration.

Isinglass

Isinglass, a traditional fining added to help yeast flocculate, is processed from swim bladders of both American and Russian sturgeon species. When macerated and dissolved in dilute food-grade acids, a viscous solution of mainly protein collagen is formed.

KICK Carrageenan™

KICK Carrageenan™ is a recently developed fining tablet from Gusmer Enterprises designed to improve flocculation and clarity in the boil kettle. More powerful than generic Irish Moss, the active ingredient is highly purified Kappa Carrageenan, derived from red seaweed.

Kieselsol (Nalco 1072)

Nalco 1072 kieselsol is a liquid colloidal suspension of silicon dioxide, extremely effective in chillproofing and used in production of vegan-friendly beers. Resulting silica/protein complexes form compact sediment cakes (tank bottoms) aiding stabilized beer separation.

Lactic Acid C3H6O3

Lactic Acid can lower the pH without going through all of the trouble of having to make a sour mash for the Lactic Acid properties. Generally improves head retention and increases extraction rate. Typically used Berliner style wheat beers.

Lysozyme C72H116N22O29

Lysozyme is an enzyme that can be found in high concentrations in human tears, although commercial lysozyme is made from hen egg whites. Lysozyme is used to hinder or block malo-lactic fermentation breaking down bacterial cell walls.

Magicol 250 AC-1

Magicol 250AC is a powdered isinglass that can be dissolved to make a ready-for-use isinglass solution for treatment of brewery conditioned beers. A traditional and natural product, Magicol is the most concentrated form of isinglass and has a low cost.

Nutrafirm®

Nutriferm Energy brings alpha-amino acids, trace elements and mineral salts naturally contained in the yeast cell. Nutriferm Energy shortens the lag phase, prevents formation of hydrogen sulfide and acetic acid, and increases the production of glycerol and polysaccharides.

Phosphoric Acid H3PO4

Used to lower mash or sparge water pH when the maximum drop in pH combined with the minimum increase in titrable acidity is desired. Tends to be more stable than using lactic acid at high temperatures.

Polyclar VT (PVPP)

Polyclar, a brand name for an insoluble clarifier called Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), consists of small, electro-statically charged plastic beads. Polyclar prevents chill haze by removing haze-causing polyphenols, harsh tasting phenols (tannins), and reduces off-flavors from oxidation.

Potassium Metabisulfite K2S2O5

Potassium metabisulfite is the most popular antioxidant used in breweries. When dissolved in water or beer, it is highly effective at preventing oxidation as it releases free sulfite ions which produce the antioxidative properties.

Potassium Sorbate C6H7KO2

Potassium sorbate, also known as 'Stabiliser' widely used food preservative, is added in small quantities to sweet or semi-sweet wines and to some hard cider, to inhibit yeast growth prior to bottling to prevent carbonating.

Salt (Sodium Chloride) NaCl

Table Salt or Sea Salt, has the chemical formula NaCl, which provides sodium and chloride ions that are readily soluble in water. Brewers have recently recreated the previously extinct Leipsiger Gose beer style, which contains noteable salt.

Servomyces Capsules

White Labs Servomyces is a naturally enriched single-strain brewing yeast that was originally developed by Weihenstephan and the Munich University for German brewers to use as a biological yeast nutrient that conforms to the restrictions of Reinheitsgebot.

Sodium Erythobate C6H7NaO6

Sodium Erythobate—chemically sodium salt of erythorbic acid—is a clarifying agent used with Kieselsol, taking 12-48 hours to make beer clear and brilliant. Soluble in water, it helps maintain flavor, prevent secondary fermentation, and can be used to increase antioxidant levels.

Sparkalloid

Sparkalloid is a positive charged fining agent noted for working where other fining agents have failed. It is derived from the preserved skeletons of marine animals found in dry seabed, and is suspended in powdered agar gelatin.

Super-Kleer K.C.™

Super Kleer is a liquid finings solution that is a 2 stage clarifying agent. Super Kleer is able to clear the beer in 12-48 hours. The KC indicates that it is made up of 50ml Chitosan and 15ml Kieselsol.

Sylopute, Silicon dioxide (SiO2)

Sylopute 130 Silica Zero-gel is an amorphous silica zerogel, which selectively allows for the internal adsorption of haze-forming proteins while retarding the entry of larger, foam-positive proteins. Sylopute has been optimized to provide superior chillproofing performance versus Silica Hydrogel.

Synstar

Synstar is a single application stabilizer designed to extend the colloidal stability of beer by the adsorption of both proteins and polyphenolic tannoid compounds. Synstar is a blend of a highly specific silica xerogel and olyvinylpyrrolidone bound to silica xerogel.

Ultraflo® Max

Novozymes’s Ultraflo® Max was a specially designed enzyme combination of beta-glucanases and xylanases including a unique arabino-xylanase, that degrades cell wall material, improves wort separation and beer filtration resulting in a lower viscosity wort.

Vicfine-F1

Vicfine is purified isinglass in powder form. Added at the end of fermentation, it speeds maturation and improves filtration by removing yeasts and protein particles. For ease of use its standard form includes the necessary acid and preservative pre-blended.

Whirlfloc® Tablet

Whirlfloc, a semi-refined kettle fining agent derived from Eucheuma cottonii, negatively charged to attract positively charged proteins, that leads to improved trub compaction, enhanced beer clarity and longer filter runs. Optimally added 15 minutes prior to the end of boil.

Yeastex®

The Yeastex product range contain a combination of minerals and protein ingredients that are used to increase yeast viability and activity during fermentation. This allows end of attenuation to be reached in a shorter time, and promotes consistent fermentation profiles.