Sugars & Syrups

Quality sugar in appropriate quantities can make certain beer styles really shine. Belgian strong pale ales, abbey Dubbels, and Tripels all use sugar to lighten the palate, giving these strong beers an easy drinkability. Today caramel syrup remains a tool in the Belgian brewer’s kit; their delicious caramel flavors come from caramelized sugar. Many plants have rich, sugary sap that can be boiled into a thick syrup or further condensed into solid sugars. Overall sugars offer a variety of rich, complex flavors that can make useful additions to many beers, especially strong ones in which sugar can help improve drinkability.

Amber (Dark) Belgian Candi Sugar is Belgian-made Candi sugar, also known as ‘inverted’ sugar. The difference in Candi sugar is that it has already undergone the inversion process. This means that the yeast does not have to invert the sugar, resulting in a much stronger and quicker initial fermentation. Dark Belgian Candi Sugar is refined from sugar beets and completely fermentable. Candi Sugar helps to maintain the high alcohol content of Belgian Ales without making them overly malty or sweet. This sugar will add additional color and flavor. Typically used in Dubbels and Belgian Brown Ales, but there is no reason you couldn’t try it something else.

Used In
Belgian Tripels, Dubbels, and holiday ales

Primary Use
add head retention and sweet aroma

PPG
1.036

Color 0L
75 °L

Avg. Contents
Sucrose (glucose and fructose)

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar

Dark candi sugar is an authentic crystallized beet sugar product that is completely fermentable and darker and richer than its light counterpart. It can be added to beer to increase alcohol content and lighten the body of beers, without making them overly malty or sweet. Dark candi sugar will give more color and flavor contributions to beer than light candi sugar. It is an invert sugar often used in many higher-gravity Belgian style beers, such as Dubbels, Trippels and quads.

Used In
Dubbels, Trippels, Quads, Old Bruins, and holiday styles

Primary Use
increase alcohol & lighten body

PPG
1.036

Color 0L
275 °L

Avg. Contents
Sucrose (glucose and fructose)

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar

Light (Clear) Belgian Candi Sugar is Belgian made Candi sugar, also known as ‘inverted’ sugar. The difference in Candi sugar is that it has already undergone the inversion process. This means that the yeast does not have to invert the sugar, resulting in a much stronger and quicker initial fermentation. Light Belgian Candi Sugar is refined from sugar beets and completely fermentable. Candi Sugar helps to maintain the high alcohol content of Belgian Ales without making them overly malty or sweet. This sugar will not add additional color. Great for Tripels, Bière De Garde, Belgian pale ales, and lighter Belgian Ales.

Used In
Dubbels, Tripels and Belgian Light Ales

Primary Use
add head retention and sweet aroma

PPG
1.036

Color 0L
0.5 °L

Avg. Contents
30% Sucrose; 26.5% Fructose; 30% Glucose

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar

Blanc is a white Belgian Soft Candi Sugar that is completely fermentable, unlike malt sugars. Blanc is the lightest soft candi sugar, and is ideal for Tripels, Saison and Bière de Garde or anywhere increased gravity is required. Blanc is typically used to supplement the main mash, or sometimes to create an additional feature or flavor.

Used In
Tripels, Saison and Bière de Garde

Primary Use
lighten the body and add light caramel notes

PPG
1.042

Color 0L
0 °L

Avg. Contents
Sucrose (glucose and fructose)

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar

Recipes that call for brown sugar without specifying either light or dark generally require light brown sugar. Light brown sugar is made from pure sugar to which about 3.5% cane molasses has been added. The distinction between light and dark brown sugar. Light brown sugar simply has less molasses than dark brown sugar, so it is lighter in color and has a milder flavor and aroma.

Used In
Belgian Tripels, Dubbels, and holiday ales

Primary Use
for priming where a richer butterscotch flavor is desired

PPG
1.046

Color 0L
8 °L

Avg. Contents
89 – 94% Sucrose; 3.5% Molasses

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar, Cane Sugar

Dark candi sugar is an authentic crystallized beet sugar product that is completely fermentable and darker and richer than its light counterpart. It can be added to beer to increase alcohol content and lighten the body of beers, without making them overly malty or sweet. Dark candi sugar will give more color and flavor contributions to beer than light candi sugar. It is an invert sugar often used in many higher-gravity Belgian style beers, such as Dubbels, Trippels and quads.

Used In
Scottish ales, holiday ales and some bitters

Primary Use
for priming where a richer butterscotch flavor is desired

PPG
1.046

Color 0L
60 °L

Avg. Contents
86 – 90% Sucrose; 8% Molasses

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar, Cane Sugar

Brun Foncé is a highly flavorful Dark Soft Belgian Candi Sugar. It contributes notable dark fruit and subtle caramel flavors. Used to supplement the main mash, or sometimes to create an additional feature or flavor. A by-product of the rock candi and candi syrup making processes, soft sugar is made up of tiny crystals of beet sugar that have been removed from the syrup by way of a centrifuge. These crystals have a more intense flavor than the traditional sugar rocks American brewers are currently using.

Used In
Darker Ales

Primary Use
impart a dark fruit and subtle caramel flavors

PPG
1.042

Color 0L
22 °L

Avg. Contents
30% Sucrose; 26.5% Fructose; 30% Glucose

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar

Brun Léger is the Belgian Soft Sugar used to contribute distinguishable toasted toffee and caramel flavors. It is light brown and has a rich flavor. Used to supplement the main mash, or sometimes to create an additional feature or flavor. A by-product of the rock candi and candi syrup making processes, soft sugar is made up of tiny crystals of beet sugar that have been removed from the syrup by way of a centrifuge. These crystals have a more intense flavor than the traditional sugar rocks American brewers are used to seeing.

Used In
Any Belgian style beer

Primary Use
add toasted toffee and caramel flavors

PPG
1.032

Color 0L
6 – 7 °L

Avg. Contents
96% Sucrose; 3.5% Molasses

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar

D-180 is a premium extra dark Belgian Candi Syrup. With a Lovibond rating of 180, it contributes a very dark color to beers, as well as intense flavors of dark stone fruits, dark chocolate, anise, caramel and deeply-toasted bread. D-180 is the basis for delicious dark high gravity ale’s like Westvleteren 12, Rochefort 10, and many others. It is a must-have for brewers who dabble in the Belgian dark strong ales, it is perfect for dubbels and quads, and may be used in many styles where a deep color and flavor profile are desired.

Used In
Belgian Blonde Ales, Saisons, Belgian Tripels and Golden Ale’s

Primary Use
impart deep flavors of fresh ground coffee, dark fruit, and toasted bread

PPG
1.032

Color 0L
180 °L

Avg. Contents
70% Sucrose, 15% Fructose, 15% Glucose

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar, Date Sugar

After 16 months of development, in 2016 CSI Confections released D-240 Candi Syrup. This syrup is the richest and darkest candi syrup available on the market. Created to have a rich smooth palate, D-240 is a triple-dark syrup with hints of dark raisin, extra dark stone fruit and a roasted dark caramel back-palate. For ales that require full body and indescribable flavor that will set your ales apart.

Used In
Belgian Dark Ales, and Strong Ale’s

Primary Use
impart hints of dark raisin, dark stone fruit and a roasted dark caramel back-palate

PPG
1.032

Color 0L
240 °L

Avg. Contents
Sucrose (Glucose, Fructose)

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar

D-45 Belgian candi syrup is an amber Belgian candi syrup with a Lovibond rating of 45. It will add fermentable sugars without greatly increasing body. However, it will contribute rich toasted notes to any beer that it is used in. Flavors of toast, honey, caramel and vanilla have been detected in this syrup. Exceedingly good in Brown Ales or medium Golden Ale’s that require an aromatic nose and subtle flavor.

Used In
Belgian Amber Ales, Belgian Dubbels, Brown Ales or medium Golden Ale’s

Primary Use
impart toffee, vanilla, and toasted bread flavors

PPG
1.032

Color 0L
45 °L

Avg. Contents
Sucrose, Fructose, Glucose

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar

D-90 Belgian candi syrup is a dark Belgian candi syrup with a Lovibond rating of 90. Darker than D-45, it will similarly add fermentable sugars to beers without greatly increasing body. By far the most universal Candi Syrup D-90: is by far the most universal of the Belgian style Candi Syrups and is made with pure Beet sugar. This syrup creates an unmistakable and subtle chocolate back-palate toffee and toasted bread flavors that make a dark Candi Syrup truly brew-worthy. This syrup will insure the caramel aroma and rich flavors of award winning Belgian style ales.

Used In
Belgian Brown Ales

Primary Use
impart chocolate back-palate, toffee, and toasted bread flavors

PPG
1.032

Color 0L
90 °L

Avg. Contents
Sucrose, Fructose, Glucose

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar

A decadent Belgian style Candi Syrup that will contribute rich caramel flavors, followed by subtle fruit notes on the back palate. The color can best be described as rich and translucent 24 karat gold. Made with beet sugar and water. 5 degrees Lovibond with a PPG of 1.032. Golden Candi Syrup is ideal for Belgian Golden Ale’s, Tripels, Bier de Garde, Saison, Belgian Blonde, and all lighter Belgian Ale’s.

Used In
Belgian Golden & Blonde Ale’s, Tripels, Bier de Garde, Saisons

Primary Use
impart rich caramel flavors

PPG
1.032

Color 0L
5 °L

Avg. Contents
Sucrose (Glucose, Fructose)

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar

Simplicity is the lightest of the Belgian candi syrups. With a Lovibond rating of 1, Simplicity can be used to increase alcohol content and lighten the color and body of beers, and will also contribute a subtle flavor that is always on the periphery of your palate. The flavor contributions are very faint, but are present in the form of light honey and citrus notes. A near perfect balance of highly fermentable sugars, this syrup can be used in saisons, golden ales, and pales, as well as higher-gravity Belgian styles such as dubbels and tripels.

Used In
Belgian Blonde Ales, Saisons, Belgian Tripels and Golden Ale’s

Primary Use
increase alcohol content and lighten the color and body

PPG
1.032

Color 0L
1 °L

Avg. Contents
70% Sucrose; 15% Fructose; 15% Glucose

Sugar Type
Corn (Maize)

Sugar cane (Sachrum officenarum) is a tall Southeast Asian grass that grows in tropical climates (Asia, Africa and South America), whereas the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) has its origin in the temperate climates (Europe and North America.) To get sugar, the cane is crushed, producing cane juice, which is clarified and concentrated through heating and evaporation. The raw sugar crystals are separated from the remaining syrup (molasses) by centrifuge. Chemicals are used to remove impurities, whiten the product, and crystallize it into the perfect size. In the end, what began as 14% sucrose is now 99% to 100% sucrose, or table sugar.

Used In
Various beers

Primary Use
as an emergency substitute for corn sugar. Occasionally used for priming

PPG
1.046

Color 0L
0 °L

Avg. Contents
99.4% Sucrose

Sugar Type
Cane Sugar

Corn sugar, a.k.a. dextrose (D-glucose, technically), or priming sugar is produced from corn (maize). It is the classic sugar used in priming beer and gives consistent carbonation without greatly affecting flavor. It can also be used to add fermentables to beer, wine, or cider. Corn sugar tends to lighten body and dry out beers, so it can be used to up alcohol content in lighter-colored beer styles such as cream ales, pale ales and IPAs without adding to body or mouthfeel. Although not as sweet, corn sugar has the same number of calories and grams of carbohydrates per level teaspoon as granulated sugar (sucrose). The term dextrose is a historical one that comes from ‘dextrorotatory glucose’ because a solution of glucose in water rotates the plane of polarized light to the right (dextro means “right”).

Used In
IPAs, Cream ales, Pale ales

Primary Use
in priming beer or in extract recipes where flaked maize is used in a mash

PPG
1.042 – 1.046

Color 0L
1 °L

Avg. Contents
Glucose

Sugar Type
Corn (Maize)

Corn syrup comes from cornstarch, a powdery thickener derived from the endosperm of the corn kernel. Corn syrup was invented in 1812 by a German chemist, Gottlieb Kirchhoff, by heating corn starch with sulfuric acid. Although not as sweet as regular granulated sugar, it has the same number of calories. There are two basic varieties, based on color: light corn syrup (often with vanilla and salt added for flavor) and dark corn syrup (with added refiner’s syrup, or golden syrup, for a richer flavor). Ubiquitous in the U.S. and not elsewhere, this thick, sweet syrup is known as glucose syrup outside the U.S. and Canada because it is composed mainly of glucose.

Used In
Cider & Various beers

Primary Use
for bottle priming but also for increasing beer gravity without changing color or flavor

PPG
1.036

Color 0L
1 °L

Avg. Contents
(Light) 15-19% Glucose; 12-14% Maltose; (Dark) 39-92% Glucose; 3-28% Maltose

Sugar Type
Corn (Maize)

Originally “demerara” was the specific name for sugar from the cane plantations on the banks of the Demerara River in today’s Guyana, where it was first planted by Dutch colonists in 1746. Today, it’s used as a generic term for a type of raw sugar with a dry, crunchy texture and a subtle butterscotch aroma, and it is produced by a number of cane-growing countries, but mostly Mauritius. Like turbinado sugar, its molasses -rich crystals are spun in a centrifuge to dry them, leaving coarse, light brown or tan granules. Demerara sugar is about 97% sucrose, so most of it will ferment out, and will not impart much to the body of your beer. Generally used in darker beers, as the light brown color of the sugar will affect the color of your beer.

Used In
Brown ales and porters

Primary Use
add a slight sweetness and smooth character

PPG
1.046

Color 0L
1 °L

Avg. Contents
97% Sucrose (glucose and fructose)

Sugar Type
Cane Sugar

Lactose, or milk sugar is the only readily available sugar not from plant material but instead is a disaccharide (made of galactose and glucose molecules), the primary carbohydrate in all mammals’ milk—cow, goat, sheep, buffalo, camel, and human. Typically extracted from sweet or sour whey (the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained), lactose is perhaps best known to brewers as the source of sweetness in sweet stouts, such as milk stout or cream stout. It can be used in varying amounts to give different levels of sweetness to beer, and may be included in recipes where more sweetness is desired. Because it is a non-fermentable sugar, it can also be used to add sweetness back to ciders that have fermented to dryness. Dried whey, which is more than 70% lactose, is the source of most purified lactose.

Used In
Brown ales, Stouts, Milk Stouts

Primary Use
add body, sweetness, milky flavor

PPG
1.046

Color 0L
0 °L

Avg. Contents
Galactose; Glucose

Sugar Type
Milk, Whey

Lyle’s Black Treacle is a by-product of the sugar (sucrose) refining process, black treacle adds color, moisture, and a rich molasses flavor. Lyle’s, a popular brand, is now available worldwide, treacle is made from cane molasses, inverted sugar, and Golden Syrup. It is a dark and intensely sweet syrup. A classic baking additive in England, it is usually used in dark moist cakes, toffees, and Christmas puddings. And it has brewing applications. With a Lovibond of 100, it is usually used in dark English ales (like an Old Ale) and sometimes in stouts and porters.

Used In
Brown ales, Stouts, Milk Stouts, Porters, and Old Ales

Primary Use
add color and a rich molasses flavor

PPG
1.036

Color 0L
100 °L

Avg. Contents
Molasses; Invert Sugar; Golden (corn) Syrup

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar

Golden syrup (sometimes called refiner’s syrup) is “partially inverted sugar syrup” made from blended sugarcane syrups (sucrose and invert sugar); it is approximately 56% invert syrup, 44% sucrose. It is a viscous, golden-red liquid of characteristic flavor and aroma, thicker and more flavorful than light corn syrup. Lyle’s is the best-known brand of golden syrup. Golden Syrup’s Lovibond is technically 0, so it has no impact on overall color. It will increase the alcohol with a subtle effect on the flavor, and especially is used in English and Belgian ales.

Used In
English Ales, Belgian Ales

Primary Use
add body and mouthfeel

PPG
1.038

Color 0L
0 °L

Avg. Contents
44% Sucrose; 56% Invert

Sugar Type
Cane Sugar

Maltodextrin is a non-fermentable polysaccharide which is often derived from corn in the U.S., though it can be derived from many different starches, including wheat, tapioca, or rice starch. In beer making, it is used to add body and mouthfeel to the beer without greatly increasing its sweetness. Because it is non-fermentable, it can be used to increase specific gravity. Maltodextrin does not produce any flavors, and does not add alcohol to the beer. It is primarily a corn based product that may be used in Gluten-Free recipes. While typically maltodextrin is not certified gluten-free, maltodextrin is so highly processed that most of the protein is removed, rendering it essentially gluten-free. This is true even of maltodextrin derived from wheat.

Used In
Various beers

Primary Use
increase body and mouth-feel while adding no flavor

PPG
1.039 – 1.042

Color 0L
3 °L

Avg. Contents
1% Dextrose; 3-5% Maltose; 5-9% Maltotriose; +85% Higher Sugars

Sugar Type
Wheat, Corn

Maltose Syrup or Malt Sugar, used in brewing has natural light yellow or yellowish-brown in color, moderate sweetness and high fermentation rate which can thin out the color of beer, improve transparency as well as the taste of the beer and maintain beer quality for a longer period of time which can effectively reduce the cost of production. Maltose, a disaccharide, has a mild taste and is about 30 to 50 percent as sweet as granulated sugar (sucrose). Made up of two glucose molecules bound together, it is found in germinating grains such as barley, as well as in malt and corn starch.

Used In
Various beers

Primary Use
improve transparency as well as the taste

PPG
1.038

Color 0L
0 °L

Avg. Contents
65% maltose; 15% maltotriose; 4% dextrose; 16% higher saccharides

Sugar Type
Malt, Corn starch

Maple syrup is a sustainably-produced, viscous amber liquid with its characteristic earthy sweet taste is made from the sap of the sugar, black or red maple tree. The process of creating maple syrup begins with tapping (piercing) 40-year-old trees, which allows the sap to run out freely. The sap is clear and almost tasteless and very low in sugar content when it is first tapped. It is then boiled to evaporate the water, producing syrup with a sugar content of 60%. This maple syrup may be further reduced to create thicker delicacies, such as maple butter, maple cream, and maple sugar. Maple syrup is, by law, graded according to color in the United States and Canada—although the grading systems differ between the countries. In the U.S., there are Grade A and Grade B maple syrups, with three sub-divisions of Grade A: light amber, medium amber, and dark amber. Grade B is even darker than Grade A dark amber. Many people assume that the grading system is indicative of quality, but, it just helps to differentiate the color and taste of the maple syrup.

Used In
Maple ales, Porters, Brown ales, Wheat beers, Blond ales

Primary Use
add a dry, woodsy flavor during boil; add a smooth maple flavor at bottling

PPG
1.036

Color 0L
35 °L

Avg. Contents
90% Sucrose (glucose and fructose)

Sugar Type
Maple Tree

Molasses is the concentrated, clarified extract of sugar cane. It is the end product of sugar refining. Forty to sixty percent of molasses is sucrose and invert sugars, and the remainder inorganic nonsugars. Open Kettle Molasses is made by boiling cane juice until a large part of the water is evaporated. It is sometimes called unsulfured molasses. Centrifugal molasses results when part or all the commercially crystallizable sugar is recovered from the concentrated cane juice, often in a series of steps where successive crystallization “strikes” result in molasses with deepening color and stronger flavor. The resulting types are known as first (light and sweet), second (dark, less sweet) and final (very dark, thick and bitter) molasses. The best grades, first and second, are used for table syrups, gingerbread and so forth. Final, or blackstrap molasses is considered inedible by some, but is used in yeast breads and baked beans by others. Molasses from sugar beets is not intended for human consumption.

Used In
Stouts, Porters, Brown Ales and Old Ales

Primary Use
impart a strong, sweet flavor

PPG
1.036

Color 0L
80 °L

Avg. Contents
40-60% Sucrose (glucose and fructose), dextrins

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar

Muscovado, also known as Barbados sugar or Molasses sugar is the world’s finest dark brown soft sugar. Originally an export of the Philippines, muscovado takes its flavor and color from the sugar cane juice it is made from. While there is no official definition, the term muscovado usually refers to a dark, molasses-rich sugar that is only partially centrifuged. Muscovado is very sticky, moist, dark in color and has flavors of molasses and burnt sugar. To produce the muscovado, sugar-cane is pressed with heavy rollers to squeeze out all the juice, then it is boiled, clarified, and poured into forms, where the liquid crystallizes into first-stage sugar (muscovado.) Unlike most regular brown sugars, which are granulated sugar with a molasses coating sprayed back on, muscovado is brown all the way through. Today there are numerous brands of muscovado sold worldwide, with the Philippines emerging as a major producer, especially for Asian markets.

Used In
Various beers

Primary Use
caramel and molasses flavor

PPG
1.044

Color 0L
10 °L

Avg. Contents
Sucrose (glucose and fructose)

Sugar Type
Cane Sugar

For centuries, the blossom-bearing spikes (known as inflorescence) of many palm trees—sugar palm (Arenga pinnata), coconut palm (Cocos nucifera), toddy or Asian palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer), and date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)—have been tapped for their sweet sap (10-20% sucrose) to produce sugar and syrups. Most palm sugar (also known as Jaggery or Coconut sugar) is produced on small farms, often members of a cooperative, with varying numbers of trees. The sap is immediately boiled over open fires in a series of metal pans or woks to reduce down to a thick syrup, then beaten to produce granulated palm sugar or poured into coconut-shell or bamboo molds to cool, crystallize, and harden into cakes or blocks. With a toffee/caramel like aroma and a flavor somewhere between brown sugar and molasses, palm sugar or solid jaggery, which is dense and sticky, ranges in color from golden yellow to dark brown and comes in a wide variety of shapes and sizes: rough cylinders, cones, cubes, blocks, and balls ranging in size from that of a marble to a coconut.

Used In
Strong Pale Ales, and Tripels

Primary Use
impart a delicate coconut or maple aroma and sweetness

PPG
1.046

Color 0L
8 °L

Avg. Contents
50% sucrose (Glucose, Fructose), up to 20% invert sugars

Sugar Type
Sap from date, coconut and sugar palms

Panela is the most common name for the traditional sugar produced and consumed throughout Latin America and the Caribbean by concentrating freshly extracted cane juice. Although some countries (such as Brazil, Colombia, and Costa Rica) have larger-scale panela industries, most is still made in small-scale, on-farm mills (trapiches) with traditional technology. The sugarcane is cut, transported to the mill, and crushed. The freshly extracted juice is filtered, clarified, and boiled down in open pans to evaporate its water content and make a thick syrup, which is traditionally poured into molds of various shapes and sizes: cones, disks, and blocks. As the syrup cools in the mold, it crystallizes into pieces of light or dark brown compressed sugar crystals. Panela is found in Colombia, a variation called piloncillo is found in Mexico and rapadura is made in Venezuela; they are related to the jaggery of India and to muscovado sugar. It will contribute flavors of caramel, rum and vanilla although the vanilla notes will dissipate with long term aging.

Used In
Various beers

Primary Use
impart a rich caramel flavor

PPG
1.044

Color 0L
10 °L

Avg. Contents
Sucrose (glucose and fructose)

Sugar Type
Cane Sugar

Rice syrup is a natural sweetener which is made from cooked brown rice which is specially fermented to turn the starches in the rice into sugars. Rice solids are used extensively in light lagers all around the world, including Budweiser, Coors, and Miller. If one wanted to make a gluten free beer then Rice Syrup solids would be one of the key ingredients in achieving a gluten free brew. Rice syrup solids provide the proteins and amino acids necessary for yeast nutrition, head retention and body along with color and flavor. Because it is filtered, Clarified Brown Rice Syrup produces a very clear, finished beer without great difficulty or product loss often experienced when trying to filter out insoluble (but colloidal suspended) protein.

Used In
American or Japanese-style light lagers (Budweiser), Rice beer (Sake)

Primary Use
adds gravity without impacting color or flavor. Lightens body and dries the finish

PPG
1.032

Color 0L
0.01 °L

Avg. Contents
Maltose, Glucose, Maltotriose

Sugar Type
Rice

Sorghum is a vital cereal crop for millions of the world’s poorest people in the semi-arid tropics of Africa and Asia. There are hundreds of varieties grown for food, animal feed, syrup, alcohol, and, increasingly, ethanol, and also (surprisingly) for making brooms. The syrup comes from the sugar-rich sap of sweet sorghum (also known as Chinese sugarcane and sorgo). As with sugarcane, the stalks are crushed to extract the juice, which is then “cooked” in open pans to reduce it to the requisite thickness, along with careful skimming to remove impurities. Made from 100% white sorghum grain, this gluten-free syrup provides proteins and amino acids necessary for yeast nutrition, head retention and body along with color and flavor. Today, US sorghum syrup production today is centered in Kentucky and Tennessee, and in bluegrass country in the Appalachians. Sorghum syrup has a unique, mild flavor and can be used with concentrated worts to produce a variety of beer styles.

Used In
Various beers

Primary Use
provide proteins, & amino acids for yeast nutrition, head retention and body, also adds color and flavor

PPG
1.037

Color 0L
2 – 6 °L

Avg. Contents
Sucrose (glucose and fructose)

Sugar Type
Sorghum grain

Granulated sugar is white refined sugar or table sugar (pure white crystalline sucrose) that has been ground into granules or grains. Most of the original flavor and color compounds are removed during processing. It is generally available in three sizes of grain (crystal size). Table sugar typically has a grain size about .5mm; superfine sugar has a grain size of about .35mm (called caster sugar in the U.K.); at the other end of the spectrum, coarse-grained sugars, such as sanding sugar, are much larger. Granulated or White table sugar, which is refined from sugarcane or sugar beet, is sucrose —the yardstick by which all other sweeteners are measured. Sugars that are less sweet than sucrose are: lactose (about 40% as sweet), maltose (about 30 to 50% as sweet), and glucose (about 70% as sweet); fructose, on the other hand, is about 70% sweeter. Sucrose is composed of 50% fructose and 50% glucose molecules.

Used In
Various beers

Primary Use
increase alcohol level

PPG
1.046

Color 0L
0 °L

Avg. Contents
50% sucrose (Glucose, Fructose), up to 20% invert sugars

Sugar Type
Beet Sugar

Turbinado is a golden-colored cane sugar (sucrose), with large sparkling crystals and a rich aroma. A type of raw sugar with molasses -rich crystals. It is a “first crystallization” sugar, which means that the cane is harvested, the juice extracted, any field impurities are removed, and then it is crystalized. It does not go through the further refining process that traditional white sugar goes through. It is similar to muscovado and demerara, though not identical, and has a sweet; very mild molasses flavor.

Used In
British pale ales or high gravity Belgian ales

Primary Use
avoid undesirable flavors

PPG
1.044

Color 0L
10 °L

Avg. Contents
95% Sucrose (glucose and fructose)

Sugar Type
Cane Sugar

Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolia) is an herbaceous perennial native to the Andes, where it has been cultivated and consumed since pre-Inca times. It is usually made with minimal processing in an evaporator, like the ones used to make maple syrup. To make the syrup, the juice is extracted from yacon’s large tuberous roots (which look rather like sweet potatoes but are sweeter and crunchier), then filtered, evaporated, and concentrated to produce a sweet syrup with a dark color and a consistency similar to that of molasses. Yacon syrup is often compared to molasses, caramel, or honey in taste, with a deep and rich, mildly sweet flavor. It easily substitutes for maple syrup or molasses in recipes, and can be used as a sweetener.

Used In
Various beers

Primary Use
as a sweetener, with a cross between caramel and molasses flavor

PPG

Color 0L

Avg. Contents
Fructose, Glucose, Sucrose, Fructooligosaccharides

Sugar Type
Yacon