1835 Pageant

In 1835, a triple anniversary was celebrated at the Munich Oktoberfest: It was the twenty-fifth anniversary of the marriage of the royal couple, Ludwig I (1786-1868) and Therese (1792-1854), the first Oktoberfest, which took place for the first time on the occasion of this wedding, as well as the founding of the agricultural central association of the kingdom, which played an important role in the organization and implementation of the event since the second Oktoberfest in 1811. 

King Ludwig I, who, despite his love of pomp, also had very frugal features, had forbidden separate public celebrations of his silver wedding anniversary; but he had no objection to combining the wedding celebration and the Oktoberfest. The procession, which then passed the royal tent on the Theresienwiese on October 4, 1835, became the most magnificent procession that the capital had seen up to that point.

The program and drafts for the parade were created by the engineer and civil building inspector of the Isar district, Daniel Ohlmüller (1791-1839), who, as the architect of the neo-Gothic Mariahilfkirche in der Au (1831-1839), which was then under construction, belonged to the wider circle of people valued and valued by Ludwig I sponsored architects. The following list, arranged according to the groups in Ohlmüller’s program, combines the lithographs with the descriptive text that was delivered with them in 1836

Sources Referenced: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and Bavarikon

Titelblatt (Title page)

Procession to celebrate the jubilee marriage of Their Majesties, King Ludwig and Queen Therese in Munich on October 4th, 1835. Published by JC Hochwind Drawn by Gustav Kraus Lach scr. Krammer grav.

Textblatt (Title sheet)

Brief description of the Oktoberfest parade from the Isar district, to celebrate the jubilee marriage of Their Majesties

Textblatt (Title sheet)

The rest of the descriptive text is assigned to the respective following lithographs indicated by […]

Textblatt Text Description

Brief description of the Oktoberfest parade from the Isar district, to celebrate the jubilee marriage of Their Majesties King Ludwig and Queen Therese, on October 4th, 1835 in Munich, published by JC Hochwind in Munich

Those who have seen this national procession in all its magnificence will always have a pleasant memory of these images, all the more so those who did not have the opportunity to attend the festival will not be unwelcome. It consisted of almost 1,000 mounted peasants with little white and blue flags, then derley armbands, more than 2 companies of mountain riflemen in their peculiar national costume, against 80 festively decorated carriages of various kinds with six, four and two horses. It lasted almost 2 hours past the king’s tent, preparing fresh surprises and great admiration with ever new apparitions. And yet this long series was just a miniature painting, restricted to the smallest frame, of what moves in our blessed Bavarian country, what grows and grows in it.

Happy the prince who rules over such a country and people! […]

I. General Group

The parade is opened by groups of wagons from the district courts of Pfaffenhofen , Munich, Wasserburg and Landsberg , which form a “general group” according to Ohlmüller’s program: on two groups of riders, with the “flag of Scheyern ” the (not entirely correct) coat of arms of the Wittelsbach family before the takeover of the lozenge shield of the Counts of Bogen, followed by the Bavaria, a personification of Bavaria, as well as a wagon for each of the eight districts (government districts) of the kingdom: Isarkreis (since 1838: Upper Bavaria), Oberdonaukreis (Swabia and Neuburg), Unterdonaukreis (Lower Bavaria) , Regenkreis (Upper Palatinate and Regensburg), Rezatkreis (Middle Franconia), Untermainkreis (Lower Franconia), Obermainkreis (Upper Franconia) and Rheinkreis (Rhine Palatinate). 

Here it is particularly clear that the representation was independent of the actors. In addition, the coats of arms of the three Franconian chariots are incorrect; it must remain open, however, whether this is one of Gustav Kraus’s (rare) mistakes, or whether the coats of arms were painted incorrectly by the communities that made the floats. Four other floats represent the four seasons before the group is completed by three homage floats and another personification of Bavaria.

Top row: Landgericht Pfaffenhofen (Royal District Court of Pfaffenhofen)
Bottom row:  Landgericht München (Royal District Court of Munich).   Bavaria (Nymphenburg). Isar district (Schwabing).

[…] The first picture shows from the district courts of Munich and Pfaffenhofen: trumpeter corps and cavalry, the Landwehr opens the procession; at the head an armored man with the famous banner of the house of Bavaria from Scheyern. Bavaria is enthroned under the magnificent temple with spear and shield (municipality of Nympfenburg), surrounded by girls dressed in white and blue with flags and ribbons. […]

Top row: Landgericht München (Royal District Court of Munich).  Ober-Donau-Kreis (Feldmoching). Lower Danube district (Pasing). Rain Circle (Aubing).
Bottom row: Rezat Circle (Perlach). Unter-Main-Kreis (Neuhausen). Ober-Main district (Sendling and Thalkirchen). Rhein-Kreis ( Aschheim and Kirchheim ).

[…] Now on this then on the 2nd and 3rd picture representations of the eight circles of Kingdom of Bavaria in national costume with their nature and diligence products, denoted by the coat of arms of the district capital, namely Isar district (Schwabing), Oberdonau district (Feldmoching), Unterdonau district (Pasing), Regen district (Aubing), Rezat district (Perlach), Untermain-Kreis (Neuhausen), Obermain-Kreis (Sendling and Thalkirchen), Rheinkreis (Aschheim and Kirchheim); […]

Top row: Landgericht München (Royal District Court of Munich).  Spring (Freymann). Summer ( Garching )
Bottom row: Autumn (Planeck) Winter.

[…] also spring (Freymann), summer (Garching), autumn and winter (Planeck), all in the most excellent groupings on movable wagons . […]

Top row: Landgericht Wasserburg (Royal District Court of Wasserburg).   District of Wasserburg. District Hague.
Bottom row: Royal District Court of Wasserburg,   Königliches Landgericht Landsberg.  Magistrat Landsberg.

[…]The 4th picture shows cheerful boys and girls from the district court of Wasserburg on 4 wagons with the local coat of arms, with standards and pennants containing the royal names, then in baskets filled perduckten, the names of the boys are Ludwig, those of the girls Therese, sinige Order of the community board Huber of that area (Hague). The landger. respect. the city of Landsberg encapsulates Bavaria with the cornucopia of blissful donations, with the city standard-bearer leading the way on a large float under a rich baldachin, through religion, the arts, sciences, patriotism and loyalty, culture and agriculture, bravery and strength, trade and commerce, in pretty female figures . […]

II. Harvest Group

The second group of the parade shows a wide variety of harvest scenes on twenty floats, which are intended to symbolize the wealth and diligence of Bavaria’s agriculture. With the public at that time, the second car of the district court in Bruck (roughly in today’s municipality of Fürstenfeldbruckaccordingly) was particularly well received: a grain hauler where parts of the side paneling could be folded down to reveal a view of two festively dressed couples threshing. 

Probably because of the popularity of the scenery, Gustav Kraus also included this wagon in his 1835 view of Oktoberfest, Königszelt and Festzug (not reproduced here), although he thereby arbitrarily changed the train order there. The wagons from the Oberland driving to the end of the section often have marksmen and marksmen, but according to the program they also belong to the harvest group.

Top row: Landgericht Dachau (District Court of Dachau)

[…] In the 5th and 6th image, the district courts of Dachau and Bruck lead us with the presentation of the agriculture symbol, then a crowd of riders on beautifully drawn horses, together with a stately float rich in allegories (Markt Dachau ), then a peasant wedding; Finally, on four ornately decorated white and blue wagons, the juiciest grain-harvesting scenes are before our eyes. […]

Top row: Landgericht Dachau (Royal District Court of Dachau)
Bottom row: Landgericht Bruck (Royal District Court of Bruck)

[…] One of the carriages, emblazoned with the image of the historic Fürstenfeld Abbey and seemingly heavily laden with rich sheaves, opens magically and is suddenly transformed into a barn floor, on which lively threshers after the Tacked vigorously swinging the flail. […]

Top row: Königliches Landgericht Erding   (Royal District Court of Erding)

[…] While in three pictures through the district court of Erding on beautiful wagons, accompanied by horsemen, the hemp and flax […]

Top row: Landgericht Freising (Royal District Court Freysing)

[…] Freising the fruit tree culture, […]

Top row: Landgericht Ebersberg Royal District Court of Ebersberg.  Grafing
Bottom row: Grafing.  Ebersberg. Ebersberg

[…] Ebersberg the hop production and sheep breeding (Grafing and Ebersberg) , […]

Top row: Landgericht Wolfratshausen (District Court of Wolfratshausen).  Schaeftlarn
Bottom row: Deining 

[…] in the other 3, by the district court of Wolfratshausen the Heuerndte (Schäftlarn-Deining), […]

III. Group of Mountain Life

The transition from the Harvest group to the Mountain life group is fluid. The Tölzer Schützen, Miesbacher Leonhardiwagen (Kraus only shows two of the three carriages driven according to the program) and a carriage sent from Dießen am Ammersee with a school choir stand out as particularly memorable in the front part of the group. The Miesbach groups are followed by a small group of fishermen from the district court of Laufen ; they were not originally planned because of the distance to Munich on the train. At the end of the group is a large delegation from Starnberg , which among other things carries models of three royal pleasure ships from Lake Würmsee/Starnberger See.

Top row: Landgericht Wolfratshausen (Royal District Court Wolfratshausen). Parish of Argeth
Bottom row: Otterfing . Beuerberg [ Baierbrunn ]. sour salmon 

[…] Wealth of wood and brave target shooters (Argeth, Otterfing , Beuerberg, Saurlach, Baierbrunn, […]

Top row: Landgericht Wolfratshausen (District Court of Wolfratshausen).  Royal District Court of Wolfratshausen. Baierrhein . Eurasburg . Holzhausen
Bottom row: Oberbiberg . Market Wolfratshausen 

[…] Eurasburg, Holzhausen, Oberbiberg), Isarfloßfarths-Verkehr (Market Wolfratshausen) represents in the most diverse successful inventions and groups, compilation, […]

Top row: Landgericht Tölz  (Royal District Court of Tölz).  Compagnie Wackersberg . Jachenau . Company Gaissach
Bottom row: Tölz. Protect from Lenggries

[…] From the district court of Tölz, the magnificent, uniformed mountain rifle companies with flying flags and jingling games (Wackersberg, Gaisach, Lenggries), a wagon full of lively, peculiar valley residents (Jachenau), a movable alpine hut with accessories set up just like the raft above (Markt Tölz) ; […]

Top row: Landgericht Miesbach (Royal District Court of Miesbach)
Bottom row: Royal District Court of Miesbach. Royal District Court of Laufen . Royal district court of Landsberg (Diessen).

[…] from the Miesbach district court 2 so-called Sankt Leonhard trips; then a green wagon with merry church fair guests; Half a dozen burly men in red skipper’s costume ran from the district court, with the miniature model of their Salzach river vessel; from the district courts of Landsberg, a school youth choir with the teacher. […]

Top row: (Landgericht Starnberg) Royal District Court of Starnberg

[…] In the following pictures, the district court of Starnberg is distinguished by a trumpeter corps on horseback, a detachment of peasant cavalry, the pennanted and manned royal pleasure ships: Löw, Hirsch, [. ..]

IV. Group of Rural Festivities

Here, too, the transition between the groups of Ohlmüller’s program is fluid. According to the program, the group of riders at the end of sheet 16 actually rode ahead of this group. Three rather simple floats are followed by four floats from the Seefeld patrimonial court, which existed until 1848, depicting, among other things, a peasant wedding. According to the special rights that the Counts of Toerring-Seefeld received in their patrimonial court, this part of the group carries the Toerring colors red, silver and green with them.

The last wagon of the group with gull fishermen on the Seefeld (today: Pilsen) lake released 25 white pigeons directly in front of the king’s tent, as shown on the lithograph.

Top row: (Landgericht Starnberg) Royal District Court of Starnberg.  Mountain
Bottom row: Gauting . Tutzing

[…] Swan, along with the dugout canoe for fishing, on wave-like trapped, 6, 4 and 2 team. They are followed by coats of arms artificially adorned with natural threads with singing school children and festively dressed residents (Berg, Gauting, Tutzing). […]

Top row: Patrimonialgericht Seefeld (Patrimonial Court of Seefeld)

[…] But the 17th picture speaks very well – the farmer’s wedding and chamber wagon train, then the sailboat hunting ship with seagull hunters manned in old costume, dressed by lords of the manor led six-in-hand. The thoughtful allegory of the 25 white doves set free in front of the king’s tent, on the jubilant marriage of the very highest ruler couple, (instead of the seagulls) is unforgettable for every Bavarian (patrimonial courts Seefeld ), […]

V. Group of Memories of the Past

The following small group of performers in historical costumes were taken over by the patrimonial courts of Leutstetten (then owned by the non-noble Ertl family), Seefeld (owned by the Counts of Toerring-Seefeld) and Possenhofen (just the year before, in 1834, by Duke Max Joseph in Bavaria acquired) sent. According to the description, builders of the castle, which was then being renovated, were sitting in the Possenhofen carriage.

Top row: Patriomialgericht Leutstetten (Patrimonial Court of Leutstetten).  Seefeld patrimonial court.
Bottom row: Patrimonialgericht Possenhofen.  (Patrimonial Court Leutstetten)

[…]Impressive and surprising on the 18to picture is the memory of earlier times with armored and armed knights and horsemen, brass instrument music at the head, an artificially erected and dignified armored float with the traditional Seefeld coat of arms and shields in the entourage; then a carriage of manorial (Possenhofer) castle builders in Feyertag suits; finally on a stately six-in-hand carriage, accompanied by armed men and the lord of the castle himself on horseback with his loyal squire, the noble castle residents or members of the knightly family (Leutstetten patrimonial court). […]

VI. Group of City Life & Final Group with 400 Horsemen

At the end of the actual pageant, a few groups followed that were supposed to represent urban life, led by a group from Landshut , which belonged to the Isar district until 1838 , followed by a few communities that now belong to Munich. The municipality of Bogenhausen presents itself as an orchard, while the Munich suburb of Au, which received municipal rights between 1818 and 1879, has wagons to the Mariahilfkirche, also planned by Ohlmüller, and a large Salvator beer wagon from the Zacherl’schen brewery, today’s Paulaner brewery. The municipalities of Haidhausen and Giesing provide wagons that are also intended to present general Bavarian craftsmanship. The places Weilheim , Murnauand Freising close the group with floats without any special symbolism.

Gustav Kraus only depicted a small fraction of the 400 riders in the final group, including the cheering final rider

Top row: Magistrat Landshut (Landshut Magistrate)
Bottom row: Royal District Court Au, Bogenhausen

[…] In addition to the city of Landshut with its allegorically decorated wagon, the depiction of the city and Trausnitz Castle – the honorary coat of arms – 3 armored men and the assembled magistracy in old official costume, the district court of Au takes on the following 3 pictures. Horsemen with their trumpeters begin, after them a fragrant flower garden and an oragen tree bursting with fruit with a tending gardener and gardener (Bogenhausen); […]

Top Row: Vorstadt Au (Suburb Au)
Bottom row: Royal District Court Au.   Zacherl’sche brewery in the suburb of Au.    {On the flags] | 25 more years like today. | Salvator beer. | Another 1000 years like today. |

[…] beautiful allegories of the prevailing guilds of bricklayers and carpenters (Vorstadt Au), a numerous group from the annual folk life at the time of the Salvator beer (Zacherlsche brewery in der Au); […]

Top row: Gemeinde Haidhausen (Municipality of Haidhausen)
Bottom row: Gemeinde Giesing (Municipality of Giesing)

[…] the domestic femininity with her productive handicrafts, men with various trade signs (Haidhausen and Giesing); […]

Top row:  Landgericht Weilheim (District Court of Weilheim).   Weilheim. Murnau
Bottom row: Magistrat Freising. (Royal District Court of Munich)

[…] After the 22-ton sheet, the Weilheim district court sent ornamental wagons with the town and market coat of arms, then their residents (Weilheim and Murnau), and finally the town of Freising sent the emblems of all the craftsmen located there. The end of the rural procession, which will not be coming back any time soon, is formed by cavalry from the district court of Munich, and the last left wingman shouts at the top of his lungs, swinging his hat, a genuinely Bavarian: “Juche”! […]

VII. Preview of the Festival Week

According to the festival program , the actual procession was followed by seven smaller groups from the city of Munich, which were intended to give a foretaste of the festive events of the rest of the Oktoberfest:
1) the marksman trumpeters,
2) the prize flags of the festival shooting,
3) the prizes of the chariot race,
4) the drawn wagons,
5) the prize flags of wheel racing,
6) the journeymen and
7) the wrestlers.

Gustav Kraus depicted a selection of these groups in the two final leaves of the cycle, beginning each leaf with the trumpeter group. Groups 5 – 7 (top row) and 4 (bottom row) follow on the first sheet, and group 2 on the second sheet, together with a selection of different rifle groups and some Landwehr soldiers at the end.

The competitions represented here traced themselves back in part to older traditions. Shooting competitions have existed at the Oktoberfest since 1816 to the present day; the wrestling competitions of the bakers’ journeymen and the wheel race of the journeymen’s wheelwrights, on the other hand, were held for the first time in 1835 during the Oktoberfest on the initiative of the gymnastics teacher Josef Gruber. The journeyman bakers conducted their competition (race over 3 x 125 paces and wrestling, in which the hands “must not come off the shoulders”) on legendary events surrounding the Battle of Mühldorf1322 back; the competition of the Wagner journeymen, in which the task was to drive a wooden wheel with a diameter of 117 cm without an iron ring on a given track (4 x 1000 paces), was traced back to a historical event on July 20, 1709. At that time, the wheelwright Johann Guttmann from Lechhausen made a wooden wheel in one day and drove it to Munich.

The Roman-style chariot race was also held for the first time in 1835 and was probably due to King Ludwig I’s well-known enthusiasm for antiquity . owed. But apparently it was never repeated.

Top row: Bäcker-/Wagner-Gesellen (Procession of bakers and wainwrights)
Bottom Row: Chariot Racer Train
Lower row: at the October Festival in Munich | on October 4, 1835 | Published by JC Hochwind

[…] Now follows, from the capital and residence city of Munich on the 23rd and 24th sheet, with the lead of a trumpet corps in old German costume, the procession of bakers and journeymen wagners for competitions and races, then for wheeling on a marked track around the prize flags, the first through the awarding of Emperor Ludwig’s coat of arms because of military honors in the Battle of Ampfing519 years ago, the latter embodied by Master Gutlmann von Lechhausen’s artistry 126 years ago; also of two-horse and two-wheeled chariot racers, taken from the Roman games; […]

Top row: Feuergewehr-/Stahlarmbrust-Schützen (Firearms-/Steel Crossbowmen)
Bottom Row: Pageant | of firearms and steel crossbowmen | October 5, 1835 | Publisher of JC High Wind

[…] finally of firearms and steel crossbowmen with the insignia, aimers and prizes; which led a detachment of Landwehr riflemen. […]