Industrial Age 1800 – 1900

The Industrial Revolution was a period of the 18th century marked by social and technological change in which manufacturing began to rely on steam power, fueled primarily by coal, rather than on animal labor, or on water or wind power; and by a shift from artisans who made complete products to factories in which each worker completed a single stage in the manufacturing process. Improvements in transportation encouraged the rapid pace of change. The causes of the Industrial Revolution remain a topic for debate with some historians seeing it as an outgrowth from the social changes of the Enlightenment and the colonial expansion of the 17th century. The Industrial Revolution began in the English Midlands and spread throughout England and into continental Europe and the northern United States in the 19th century.
Industrial Age



First U.S. Temperance Organization Founded

Billy J. Clark, Temperance Society of Moreau and Northumberland, New York

Dr. B. J. Clark (Billy Clark) with the help from Reverend Lebbeus Armstrong, founds the  first U.S. temperance organization, the Union Temperance Society of Moreau and Northumberland at Saratoga, N. Y. The constitution of this society declares : “No member shall drink rum, gin, whisky, wine or any distilled spirits, or compositions of the same or any of them, except by advice of a physician or in case of actual diseases, also excepting at public dinners, under the penalty of 25 cents; provided that this article shall not infringe on any religious rite ; no member shall be intoxicated under penalty of 50 cents; no member shall offer any of the above liquors to any person to drink thereof under the penalty of 25 cents for each offense.”

IMAGE: Dr. B. J. Clark (Billy Clark)

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Event, Person, Prohibition, Temperance, U.S. History

First Oktoberfest

Das Pferderennen auf dem Münchner Oktoberfest, 1823 by Heinrich Adam, 1787– 1862Munich establishes Oktoberfest as an official celebration. Crown Prince Ludwig, later to become King Ludwig I, was married to Princess Therese of Saxony-Hildburghausen on 12 October 1810. The citizens of Munich were invited to attend the festivities held on the fields in front of the city gates to celebrate the happy royal event.  The fields were renamed Theresienwiese (“Theresa Fields”) to honor the Crown Princess, although the locals have since abbreviated the name simply to “Wiesn”. Horse races in the presence of the royal family marked  the close of the event that was celebrated as a festival for the whole of Bavaria. The decision to repeat the horse races in subsequent years gave rise to the tradition of Oktoberfest.
It was first celebrated on the occasion of the marriage of young Crown Prince (later King Ludwig I) and Princess Therese of Sachsen-Hildburghausen on a huge meadow outside of the city walls of Munich on October 17, 1810. This festival, celebrated for several days by the entire city, was such a success that since then it is re-enacted each year on the Theresienwiese. A traditional costume parade took place in 1835 in honor of the silver wedding anniversary of King Ludwig I and Princess Therese of Sachsen-Hildburghausen. Today this tradition continues on the first Sunday of the “Wiesn” and has become one of the highlights of the Oktoberfest as well as being one of the world-largest parades of its kind. The Munich Oktoberfest is regarded as the biggest folk festival in the world and is attended year after year by over six million people.

IMAGE: Das Pferderennen auf dem Münchner Oktoberfest, 1823 by Heinrich Adam, 1787– 1862.

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Cultural, Event, Person

Degrees Gay-Lussac (0GL)

Gay Lussac

Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac (b.1778 d.1850), born at Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat, France, was a chemist-physicist notable for his meticulous, precise and persistent style of work, published in 1810 and 1815 papers making substantial contributions to the understanding of the complex processes of alcoholic fermentation. Lussac applied himself, in 1821-1822, to the study of the relation between liquid density and alcohol concentration.
He perfected a new alcoholometer which was easy to use and gave directly, due to its calibration, the alcoholic rate at a given temperature, based on the percent of alcohol content by volume, not by weight. The precision of this new system was at the root of a new law about wines and spirits in 1824. The Gay-Lussac (GL) system is still referenced in some countries, where alcohol by volume is referred to as degrees Gay-Lussac (0GL).

IMAGE: Gay-Lussac

Brewing Process, Discovery, Inventions & Innovations, Person

Beer is Proven to Kill

A huge vat containing 610,000 litres ruptured inside the Meux and Company Brewery

On the afternoon of October 17th 1814 an employee at the Horse Shoe Brewery noticed that one of the iron hoops had snapped off one of the huge vats of beer. The vat was filled with 3550 barrels of porter—more than one million pints—and stood 22 feet tall. The employee made a note of the broken hoop but was not overly concerned, because the hoop had snapped a few other times in the past year. About an hour later, at about 6pm the giant vat full of fermenting porter, on top of the Meux’s Brewery Co., Ltd, violently burst releasing over half-a-million liters of liquid. This started a domino-effect as the other vats in the brewery also exploded. A beer tsunami of over 320,000 gallons of beer were released into the streets around Tottenham Court Road. The 15-foot-high wave of beer and debris demolished two houses and damaged the Tavistock Arms public house on Great Russell Street, resulting in the death of 14-year-old barmaid Eleanor Cooper. Another eight people also lost their life in the disaster, most of them drowned, some of them died from injuries inflicted by the torrent, and one later died of alcohol poisoning.

IMAGE: The Meux and Company Brewery prior to the flood

People, Temperance Society
Brewery, Event

Daniel Wheeler Invents the Drum Roaster

Daniel Wheeler’s Drum Roaster

Daniel Wheeler of Charles Street, Drury Lane, London, invented the drum roaster in 1817 which allowed for the production of very dark, roasted malts, contributing to the flavor of porters and stouts. Its development was prompted by a British law of 1816 forbidding the use of any ingredients other than malt and hops. Porter brewers, employing predominantly pale malt grist, urgently needed a legal colorant. Wheeler’s patent malt was the solution. On March 28, 1817, he obtained British Patent No. 4112 for “A New or Improved Method of Drying and Preparation of Malt” which is how the Black Patent Malt used for Porters and Stouts got its name.
He used an iron cylinder similar in construction to a coffee roaster to roast malt to the point where a small amount of malt could darken a large amount of beer without imparting an overly burnt or tarry taste to the entire brew. According to the patent: “Said invention consists in the heating of malt to 400 degrees and upwards of Fahrenheit’s thermometer… and in so heating it that the greater part of the saccharine and amylaceous principles of the grain become changed into a substance resembling gum and extractive matter of a deep brown color, readily soluble in hot or cold water…”

IMAGE: Daniel Wheeler’s Drum Roaster

Brewery, native americans
Brewing Process, Ingredient, Person

American Temperance Society Established

Dr. Justin Edwards

The American Temperance Society (ATS), first known as the American Society for the Promotion of Temperance, was established on February 13th in Boston Massachusetts.  Lyman Beecher and Dr.Justin Edwards were both preachers and the Co-Founders of ATS. Lyman Beecher, was strongly anti-Catholic and also a racist who refused to permit African-American students in his classes, the other, Dr. Justin Edwards, said the organization was to promote temperance while letting drunkards “die off and rid the world of ‘an amazing evil.’” The American Temperance Society worked to improve the society  by the banning of drinking alcohol, and organized lectures, press campaigns, an essay contest, the formation of local and state societies, and publishes Listen: A Journal of Better Living.  The ATS marked the beginning of the first formal national temperance movement in the US that called for the abstention from drinking, and contributed to the abolitionism of slavery.

IMAGE: Justin Edwards

Temperance Society
Brewery, Event, U.S. History

Yuengling Brewery Founded

David Gottlob Jüngling (D. G. Yuengling)

The German brewer David Gottlob Jüngling emigrated to the United States in 1823 from Aldingen, a suburb of Stuttgart, in the Kingdom of Württemberg. He anglicized his surname from Jüngling to Yuengling and began the “Eagle Brewery” on Center Street in the Pennsylvania coal town of Pottsville in 1829.
His eldest son, David, Jr., left the Eagle Brewery to establish the James River Steam Brewery along the James River in Richmond, Virginia. The first brewery burned down in an 1831 fire and the company relocated to W. Mahantongo Street at 5th Street, its current location. The Eagle Brewery changed its name to “D. G. Yuengling and Son” in 1873 after Frederick Yuengling joined his father David in running the company. Although the company’s name changed, the bald eagle has remained the company’s emblem. Today the Yuengling  brewery is still the oldest and largest operating family brewery in the United States.

IMAGE: David Gottlob Jüngling (D. G. Yuengling)

benjamin rush
Brewery, Person, U.S. History

Lager Introduced in America

Engel and Wolf's brewery and vaults, Philadelphia, PA. circa 1855.

In 1840 German born, brewmaster John Wagner from Bavaria smuggled some of this highly-coveted (and illegal to transport) lager yeast with him when he immigrated to Philadelaphia. Hoping to keep his delicate yeast alive, Wagner sailed on board one of the new clipper ships. It was the lack of fast transport that had probably kept lager yeast out of the New World. He set up shop at 455 St. John Street near Poplar in the city. Wagner ran his operation from the rear of his home. The brewery that introduced lager to Philadelphia was tiny, consisting of a kettle hung over an open hearth. Wagner’s brewing capacity was limited to eight 31-gallon barrels (about a small brewpub’s worth), which he then aged in the cellar behind his house.
Probably as a result of limited capital, Wagner’s experiment did not lead to the establishment of a successful lager brewery, although he remained in Philadelphia for some time operating a beer hall. Soon others entered into the lager business. George Manger, a Wagner associate, acquired a pint of his yeast at some point in the early 1840s. While an employee at the Haas and Wolf sugar refinery, Manger convinced his boss, Charles Wolf, and fellow employee Charles Engel to brew lager for private consumption in the sugar plant. Manger then established his own brewery on New Street. Engel and Wolf then set up the first large-scale lager brewery in the country in 1844.

IMAGE: Engel and Wolf’s brewery and vaults, Philadelphia, PA. circa 1855

nathan dane
Brewery, Brewing Process, Ingredient, Person, U.S. History

Lemp Brewery Established

William J. Lemp

Johann Adam Lemp was born in 1798 in Eschwege, Germany, and two years after his arrival in the United States in 1836, he moved to St. Louis. He sought to make his fortune by becoming a grocer; however he abandoned this dream when he realized his grocery store was more popular for its lager beer than for its groceries. In 1840, Lemp closed his grocery and opened a brewery and saloon, then known as the Western Brewery. During the 1840s, Lemp moved the brewery to a larger complex in south St. Louis and began training his son, William J. Lemp, to take over the operations.
The elder Lemp died in 1862, and William J. Lemp then took over the brewery and purchased the property that would become the Lemp Brewery complex in 1864. This property at 3500 Lemp Avenue, still stands in St. Louis today. The brewery is built upon a complex of natural caves which were once used for the lagering of beer by early German brewers. Caves are naturally cool, which was especially attractive to brewers before the advent of refrigeration. In addition to being used for the storage and lagering of beer, such naturally cool places were sometimes employed as beer gardens, places for entertainment.
In 1939 the struggling Central Brewing Company of East St. Louis Illinois renamed itself as the Wm. J. Lemp Brewing Company. For 6 years they existed as the Lemp Brewery before changing their name again, to the EMS Brewing Co., in 1945. The brewery would soon close as a branch of Falstaff in 1949. In 1987 St. Louis beer historian Steven J. DeBellis put Lemp beer back on the market as an American adjunct lager. The Lemp Brewing Co. currently contract brews Lemp beer through the Stevens Point Brewery in Stevens Point, Wisconsin.

IMAGE: William J. Lemp

nathan dane
Brewery, Person, U.S. History

Munich Dunkel & Vienna Styles Introduced

Gabriel Sedlmayer, Anton Dreher and Christian Lederer in 1839Two other influential figures in spreading the word on the benefits of ‘scientific brewing’ from the  early 1840s were Bavarians Gabriel Sedlmayr Jr. of the Spaten brewery in Munich who begins brewing a dark lager beer (Munich Dunkel Lager), and Anton Dreher of the Brauhaus zu Klein-Schwechat in Vienna, who developed the lager (Vienna Style ) method of beer production. Dreher’s father, Franz Anton Dreher, who had purchased the Brauhaus zu Klein-Schwechat in 1787 passed away in 1820 while Anton was still a child. Anton’s mother and relatives persuaded him to follow in his father’s footsteps. Initially, Anton saw things differently and enrolled as a university student, but his family eventually prevailed upon him to become an apprentice at the nearby Simmeringer Brauerei. Meanwhile Gabriel Sedlmayr I of Spaten Brauerei in Munich sent his son, Gabriel II, to apprentice at the same Brauerei. The two brewers’ sons became fast friends, with Dreher resolving to accompany Sedlmayr on the remainder of his on a six year grand tour of Europe to absorb as much of the known and unknown brewing knowledge as possible. During the early 1830s, the two visited places like Leipzig, Strasburg, Cologne, and Antwerp to quench their thirst for brewing knowledge. Their final destination was Britain, where the best beers of early nineteenth-century Europe were.
Armed with their new-found knowledge, and the results of their industrial espionage lead to important advancements in brewing science. Dreher developed his Viennese malt using the framework of English pale malt, but at a slightly higher temperature. Vienna malt was noticeably darker, more aromatic and gave beers a richer body. In 1841, Dreher used this malt to brew his bottom-fermented beer for the first time in the “Zur Kohlkreunze” inn and in Dreher’s house in Kledering. After being completely stored, was brought it to Vienna under the “Klein-Schwechater Lagerbier” brand. This amber beer called Vienna Red—the first of the pale lagers brewed in central Europe—immediately gained traction across the Austro-Hungarian Empire, catapulting Dreher’s brewery to the highest ranks of production. Gabriel Sedlmayr took inspiration from his friend and set out to create his own Viennese-style lager, but with a slight adjustment. Sedlmayr chose to kiln his malt at a higher temperature with longer exposure. This new Munich malt made a much more robust beer and was highly aromatic. Sedlmayr’s Märzenbier was introduced that same year in 1841 during the Oktoberfest celebrations. Like the Vienna lager, it was an instant success.

IMAGE: Gabriel Sedlmayer, Anton Dreher and Christian Lederer in 1839. Photo courtesy Dreher Beer Museum – Beer Industry Memorial

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Brewery, Brewing Process, Event, Ingredient, Person

Pilsner Urquell

Joseph Groll bust in Vilshofen an der DonauIn Pilsen, the quality of beer reached a low point, so low that the beer drinking citizens revolted, pouring 36 kegs of city beer into the streets in front of city hall. As a result the officials of Pilsen founded a city-owned brewery in 1839, called Měšťanský pivovar Plzeň or the Bürgerbrauerei—German for citizens’ brewery or municipal brewery.
Legend has it that a strain of much-envied bottom-fermenting yeast was smuggled out of Bavaria by a monk and passed on to a Bohemian brewer Josef Groll (1813–1887) whom the Pilsen brewery recruited to be their new brewmaster. Using the specifics of local ingredients and paler malts, he presented his first batch of pale lager on 5 October 1842. The combination of Pilsen’s remarkably soft water, local Saaz noble hops from nearby Žatec, brighter malt prepared by British technology, and Bavarian-style lagering (bottom-fermented beer termed at the time) produced a clear, golden beer. that acquired the name Pilsner Urquell (urquell is German for “original source”).
The burghers of Pilsen didn’t get around to trademarking “pilsner bier” until 1859, by which time there were many other beers on the market referring to themselves as pilsner-style beers. Belatedly, in 1898, the Bürger Brauerei registered “the original pilsner” (Pilsner Urquell) as a trademark. The brewery became known as the Pilsner Urquell brewery (Plzeňský Prazdroj). It still brews the beer today.

IMAGE: Joseph Groll bust in Vilshofen an der Donau

state, billy j. clark
Brewing Process, Person, Publication

Pabst Brewing Company Founded

Frederick Pabst brewerPabst can trace its origins to the Best family, the same family prominent in Miller Brewing Co.’s early history. Jacob Best began in Milwaukee in 1844 founding Best Brewing Co. as a humble one-story structure on Chestnut Street, squirting out a meager three hundred barrels. Best Brewing Co. was the first company to brew lager beer in Milwaukee, in 1851. Frederick Pabst, a steamer captain, married into the Best family in the early 1860s and eventually became a partner in the brewery, then called Philip Best Brewing Co. Pabst proved a canny businessman, and Best expanded rapidly under his direction.
Frederick Pabst’s crowning achievement came in 1893, when Pabst was recognized as “America’s Best Lager Beer” at the World’s Columbian Exposition. Soon thereafter, the company began affixing a blue ribbon to its bottles, giving the company’s flagship beer its now-familiar name. Experiencing failing health and the grip of old age, Best offered Pabst and his brother-in-law Emil Schandein an opportunity for greater control when they bought out their father-in-law in 1866. The death of Schandein in 1888 triggered several changes for the brewery, including a name change. In 1889, Pabst felt the time was right for the introduction of the Pabst Brewing Company.

IMAGE: Frederick Pabst

Clergy, Temperance Society
Brewery, Person, U.S. History

Balling Scale

Carl (Karel) Josef Napoleon BallingKarl Josef Napoleon Balling (Karel or Carl) (b. April 21, 1805 in Gabrielahütten, North Bohemia, d. March 17, 1868 in Prague ) As a graduate of the high school in Pilsen , Karl Josef Napoleon Balling studied chemistry at the Polytechnic in Prague from 1820 to 1823 and then continued his studies at the Charles University in Prague with an internship at the Zbirow ironworks near Pilsen in Bohemia.
Balling was one of the founders of scientific fermentation chemistry and a promoter of the development of the sugar industry in Bohemia. In 1843 he invented the Balling Saccharometer, named after him, a density spindle for determining the concentration of aqueous sugar solutions. He also introduced this saccharometer into the brewery industry and also founded the so-called attenuation theory or saccharometric beer test in 1843, which creates a mathematical connection between the alcohol content, the real extract content and the concentration of the original wort of the beer.
The scale is often referred to by the name Plato, after the German scientist who later improved on Balling’s original work, though winemakers usually call it Brix, after another improver. 

IMAGE: Carl Balling

Clergy, Temperance Society
Brewing Process, Inventions & Innovations, Person

Carlsberg Founded

Jacob Christian Jacobsen, the founder of CarlsbergIn 1811, Jacob Christian Jacobsen, the founder of Carlsberg, was born. When his father dies in 1835, Jacobsen takes over as a brewer. Driven by his passion for beer and an early interest in the natural sciences, Jacobsen sets out on a lifelong journey to improve the quality of beer. His first stop is Bavaria where he studies the brewing techniques for a new beer at Gabriel Sedlmayr’s zum Spaten brewery in Munich. In the summer of 1845, carrying two pots of Spaten yeast in a customized hat box, he returns to Denmark by stagecoach.
On this long journey, he keeps the yeast cool by stopping frequently and dousing it with cold water. Jacobsen’s first batches of lager are made in his mother’s copper wash basin. They are refined in his brewery till he gets them just right.  This new lager needed a new brewery with larger cool storage space. Taking the name of his five-year-old son, Carl, and the Danish word for hill, “bjerg”, he builds his new brewery just outside Copenhagen. With that, Carlsberg is born in 1847, with the first barrels of beer ready on 10 November. International approval came just 21 years later when the first Carlsberg beer was exported to Great Britain.

IMAGE: Jacob Christian Jacobsen, the founder of Carlsberg

nathan dane
Brewery, Person

Labatt Brewing Co. Ltd. Founded

John Kinder LabattCompany founder John Kinder Labatt was born in Ireland in 1803. His family heritage can be traced back to the Huguenots in France. Fleeing prosecution, Labatt’s ancestors resettled outside Dublin. As a young man Labatt moved to London, England, where he met and married Eliza Kell. Together the couple set sail in 1833 for Canada and arrived in London, Ontario. Labatt became a farmer and sold prize-winning malting barley to the local innkeeper, who had built a small brewery in 1828. Contact with the innkeeper gave Labatt the idea of becoming a brewer himself, an idea in which he became so interested that in 1847 he formed a partnership with Samuel Eccles, an experienced brewer. The two bought the London Brewery from the innkeeper.
Early annual production capacity was 400 barrels. In 1853 Labatt bought his partner’s share of the business and increased annual brewing capacity to 4,000 barrels. The newly renamed John Labatt’s Brewery had six employees. Despite its remarkable production increase, the young enterprise remained a local operation. The situation changed, however, with the growing presence of the railroads. When the tracks of the Great Western Railway connected London to other cities, Labatt began shipping beer and ale to Montreal, Toronto, and the Maritimes. Labatt’s went on to survive Prohibition as one of 15 breweries left in Canada, allowing it to grow into one of Canada’s largest breweries.

IMAGE: John Kinder Labatt

nathan dane
Brewery, Person

Schlitz Brewing Co. Founded

Joseph Schlitz

The Stroh family began brewing beer in a family owned tavern during the 18th century in Kirn, Germany. In 1849, during the German Revolution, Bernhard Stroh, who had learned the brewing trade from his father, emigrated to the United States and established his brewery in Detroit in 1850 when he was 28 and immediately started producing Bohemian-style pilsner. In 1865, he purchased additional land and expanded his business and adopted the heraldic lion emblem from the Kyrburg Castle in Germany and named his operation the Lion’s Head Brewery. (The lion emblem is still visible in its advertising and product labels.)
Bernhard Stroh Jr. took charge of the brewery on the death of his father. He changed the brewery’s name to the B. Stroh Brewing Company. With the introduction of pasteurization and refrigerated rail cars, Stroh was able to ship some of his beer as far as Florida and Massachusetts. In 1893 Stroh Bohemian Beer won a blue ribbon at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The company’s name was changed to The Stroh Brewery Company in 1902. In 1908, Bernhard Stroh’s brother Julius Stroh took over the brewery.
After a tour of famous European breweries, he introduced the European fire-brewing method in the Stroh brewery. Common in Europe before World War I, the fire-brewing process uses a direct flame rather than steam to heat beer-filled copper kettles. The company claims that the resulting higher temperatures bring out more of the beer’s flavor. During Prohibition, Julius Stroh operated the business under the name The Stroh Products Company, producing near beer (beer with its alcohol extracted), birch beer, soft drinks, malt products, ice cream, and ice.

IMAGE: Joseph Schlitz

nathan dane
Brewery, Person, U.S. History

Stroh Brewing Co. Founded

Stroh Brewery around 1864The Stroh family began brewing beer in a family owned tavern during the 18th century in Kirn, Germany. In 1849, during the German Revolution, Bernhard Stroh, who had learned the brewing trade from his father, emigrated to the United States and established his brewery in Detroit in 1850 when he was 28 and immediately started producing Bohemian-style pilsner. In 1865, he purchased additional land and expanded his business and adopted the heraldic lion emblem from the Kyrburg Castle in Germany and named his operation the Lion’s Head Brewery. (The lion emblem is still visible in its advertising and product labels.)
Bernhard Stroh Jr. took charge of the brewery on the death of his father. He changed the brewery’s name to the B. Stroh Brewing Company. With the introduction of pasteurization and refrigerated rail cars, Stroh was able to ship some of his beer as far as Florida and Massachusetts. In 1893 Stroh Bohemian Beer won a blue ribbon at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The company’s name was changed to The Stroh Brewery Company in 1902. In 1908, Bernhard Stroh’s brother Julius Stroh took over the brewery.
After a tour of famous European breweries, he introduced the European fire-brewing method in the Stroh brewery. Common in Europe before World War I, the fire-brewing process uses a direct flame rather than steam to heat beer-filled copper kettles. The company claims that the resulting higher temperatures bring out more of the beer’s flavor. During Prohibition, Julius Stroh operated the business under the name The Stroh Products Company, producing near beer (beer with its alcohol extracted), birch beer, soft drinks, malt products, ice cream, and ice.

IMAGE: Stroh Brewery around 1864

nathan dane
Brewery, Person, U.S. History

Blatz Brewing Co. Founded

Valentin BlatzBorn in Miltenberg, Bavaria, Germany, in 1826, Valentin “Val” Blatz spent his teen years working in his father’s brewery. He traveled for several years around Bavaria to study the techniques of experienced brew masters. At 21, he returned home to fulfill his military requirement. Fearing for his son’s welfare, his father secured a substitute in his place and sent him to America. Blatz arrived in 1849 and quickly secured employment. After two years of work, Blatz had saved enough capital to invest in himself. The Valentin Blatz Brewing Company opened in 1851, next door to John Braun’s City Brewery. Both breweries were located in an area of Milwaukee that would later be known as “brewery row.” In what might be considered a stroke of luck, Blatz purchased the City Brewery after Braun’s death in a wagon accident while delivering beer in 1852. A year later, he married Braun’s widow.
After the merger, the new Blatz Brewery was small, employing just four men and producing only 150 barrels of beer in its first year. Through dedication and vision, the brewery grew as a result of sales outside of Wisconsin, making it the fourth largest in Milwaukee. Shipping beyond Milwaukee and as far as New York had its challenges, particularly broken kegs en route. Blatz solved this problem by bottling his product, the first brewery to do so. In 1875, the brewery was turning out 2,000 bottles a day. By the early 1900s, it was the city’s third-largest brewery.
With success comes admiration, and in 1891, Blatz was purchased by a British conglomerate, the Anglo-American brewing syndicate known as the US Brewing Company. The buyout had kept the Blatz management team on, which allowed them to do what they did best: make money. In 1894, the brewery produced 365,000 barrels of beer, and it continued to remain a leader in Milwaukee. When Valentin Blatz died in 1894, he was 68 years old and had been regarded as one of the wealthiest men in Milwaukee.

IMAGE: Valentin Blatz

nathan dane
Brewery, Person, U.S. History

Early Anheuser-Busch Brewery Beginnings

Bavarian Brewery Advertisement from 1857, with George Schneider selling unfinished BeerIn 1852, German American brewer and saloon operator George Schneider opened the Bavarian Brewery—The seed of the Anheuser-Busch brewery— on Carondelet Avenue (later known as South Broadway) between Dorcas and Lynch streets in South St. Louis, Missouri. In 1860, the brewery was purchased on the brink of bankruptcy by William D’Oench, a local pharmacist, and Eberhard Anheuser, a prosperous German-born soap manufacturer. D’Oench was the silent partner in the business until 1869, when he sold his half-interest in the company and the brewery’s name was changed to E. Anheuser & Co.

IMAGE: Bavarian Brewery Advertisement from 1857, with George Schneider selling unfinished Beer

nathan dane
Brewery, Person, U.S. History

Miller Brewing Co. Founded

Frederick MillerBorn in Riedlingen, Germany, to a middle-class merchant family in 1824, Frederick Miller, originally Friedrich Müller, the youngest son, after completing his preparatory education, Miller followed the traditional path in search of a brew master’s craft. After studying several years under Bavarian brew masters, Miller made his way to France to apprentice under his uncle. Five years later, he perfected his craft and become a master brewer.
He returned to Germany, where he leased the old royal brewery and tavern in Sigmaringen. Both the tavern and brewery garnered Frederick high praises and a heavy purse. Eventually, realizing the limitations of the small brewery and the desire for something more, Miller arrived in New York in 1854.
Shortly after his arrival, Miller found the fully equipped but abandoned Plank Road Brewery. Too good to pass up, he bought it. Production began immediately; the fall of 1855 produced the first Miller Brewing Company kegs. Taking advantage of rail and steam vessels, he shipped his product far and wide to meet demand.
On the death of Frederick Miller in June 1888, his sons Ernest, Frederick A., and Emil shared an active part of brewery management, but Ernest held the president’s chair the longest. Together, they brought the brewery into the 2020th century. Expanding the brewery structure would allow for growth and updated technology. In 1890, Miller Brewing Company generated its own electricity used for lighting. The year 1903 marked Miller’s introduction of its High Life brand. Everything about this brand, including a bottle change resembling a champagne bottle, gave way to Miller’s new slogan in 1907, “The Champagne of Bottle Beer.” 

IMAGE: Frederick Miller

nathan dane
Brewery, Person, U.S. History

Louis Pasteur’s Treatise on Yeast

Louis PasteurFrench scientist Louis Pasteur (1822-95) discovers that fermentation is caused by microorganisms, and tries to help the French industry figure out how to stop wine from turning sour. In 1857 published the Germ Theory of Disease, based on the science of fermentation, clarifying the role of yeast in the process. He explained how bad things happened to good beer, and he was a fan of lagering as a way of limiting the ravages of maleficent microorganisms.
In 1860 after grape growers near Tarascon in Southern France notice decay in vineyards where they may have experimented with cuttings of U.S. vines resistant to powdery mildew, Louis Pasteur proves that abiogenesis doesn’t work, and invents Pasteurization for wine, raising it to 1200F to kill the smaller type of yeast cells that survive alcohol and keep changing the sugar to lactic acid and turning it sour. In 1861 he publishes Memoire sur les Corpuscles Organises qui Existent dans l’Atmosphere, discrediting spontaneous generation and promoting the Germ Theory of Disease, making him the world’s most famous scientist.
In 1876 after being commissioned by the French govt. in 1868 to investigate how to make French beer brewers competitive with German ones, Louis Pasteur published Etudes su la Biere (Bière) (Studies on Beer), announcing his 1857 discovery that yeast metabolizes glucose in an aerobic environment and reproduces furiously, but under anaerobic conditions it vigorously ferments, becoming known as the Pasteur Effect. 

IMAGE: Louis Pasteur

nathan dane
Brewing Process, Discovery, Ingredient, Person

August Schell Brewing Co. Founded

August SchellAugust Schell Brewing Co. was founded in 1858 in the immigrant German community of New Ulm, Minnesota. The brewery survived the Sioux uprising of 1862, reportedly because the Schell family had treated the Indian population with unusual fairness. Much of the rest of New Ulm went under the torch. The town quickly recovered and by 1866 had four other breweries. By 1880, however, August Schell had become the dominant brewery in the region. As a sign of his success, Schell built an elaborate mansion and beer garden in 1885, a site that is now on the National Register of Historic Sites and is open to the public.
During Prohibition, the company made near beer and soft drinks. It is also one of the few breweries to admit to having made some alcohol during that period, a practice that was said to be commonplace. The company is still family owned and has a capacity of 40,000 barrels. Schell was one of the first American regional breweries to rediscover the virtues of revivalist specialty beers and now produces a full range of traditional brands.

IMAGE: August Schell

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Brewery, Person, U.S. History

Anheuser-Busch Brewery Established

Adolphus Busch and Lilly Anheuser BuschEberhard Anheuser, (b.1839 d.1913) from Bad Kreuznach in west Germany, left the country, and settled in St Louis, Missouri, in 1842. He trained as a soap manufacturer, eventually going on to own the largest soap and candle company in St. Louis. Although he had no brewing experience, he became part owner of the Bavarian Brewery in 1857,—which had first opened its doors in 1852 by George Schneider—by accident when a major creditor was unable to pay Anheuser, handing over his brewery to settle the debt. By 1860, Anheuser had bought out the other investors and the brewery’s name was changed to E. Anheuser & Co.
Adolphus Busch was born in 1839, the second youngest of 22 children. At age 18, he made his way to St. Louis via New Orleans and the Mississippi River. Adolphus began working as a clerk on the riverfront and by the time he was 21, he had a partnership in a brewing supply business.
It was through this enterprise that Adolphus Busch met Eberhard Anheuser, and soon Adolphus was introduced to Eberhard’s daughter, Lilly. In 1861, Adolphus Busch and Lilly Anheuser were married, and shortly after that, Adolphus went to work for his father-in-law. He later purchased half ownership in the brewery, becoming a partner, which was then called the E. Anheuser & Co. Brewing Association.
At that time, most beer in the United States was sold in the community in which it was brewed. Adolphus was determined to create a brand that would transcend the tradition of local brews and appeal to the tastes of many different people. In 1876, he and his friend, Carl Conrad, created an American-style lager beer that succeeded beyond anyone’s expectations. Adolphus coined the label “Budweiser,” a name that would appeal to German immigrants like himself, yet could be easily pronounced by Americans. Budweiser was a success and eventually became the company’s flagship brand.
When Eberhard Anheuser died, the company changed its name to the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association. 

IMAGE: Adolphus Busch and Lilly Anheuser Busch

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Brewery, Person, U.S. History

George Ehret Founds Hells Gate Brewery

George Ehret Founds Hells Gate BreweryGeorge Ehret founded his Hell Gate Brewery on the East River between 92nd and 93rd Streets and Second and Third Avenues. Ehret’s brewery was so large, he built his own well to pump 50,000 gallons of fresh water every day and turned to the East River for 1,000,000 daily gallons of saltwater. Surviving a fire on Sept. 19, 1870 a Hells Gate becomes the largest brewery in the U.S. in 1877, reaching 220K barrels/year in 1880, 412.8K barrels/year in 1890, and 601K barrels/year in 1900.
Though Ehert presided over the largest brewery in the nation, he was not the only brewer on the block. The year after Ehret’s Hell Gate Brewery opened, Jacob Ruppert opened a rival brewery across the street. His operation sprawled between 91st and 92nd Streets and Second and Third Avenues. Ruppert also celebrated his local bonafides, calling his most popular beer Ruppert’s “Knickerbocker Beer.”
Ehert and Ruppert jointly owned a silk mill, they vacationed together, their families intermarried, and they were both loyal members of the Arion Society of New York, a German-American musical society. Like the Arion Society.
Ehret went to Germany in 1914 to recover from an illness, thinking the Alpine air might do him good. But WWI broke out while he was overseas, and he was stranded in Germany during the war, unable to return to the United States until mid-1918. In the meantime, Ehert’s business and property were seized by the US Government as “alien property,” even though Ehert was a naturalized citizen. With declining sales after the war the brewery was completely shut down in 1920 by Prohibition. Ehret dies in Jan. 1927 during Prohibition

IMAGE: Courtesy of the New-York Historical Society

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Brewery, Person, U.S. History

Leinenkugel Brewery Founded

Jacob Leinenkugel and John MillerIn 1845 Jacob Mathias Leinenkugel (b. 1842 d.1899)and his family immigrated to Wisconsin from Meckenheim, Germany, where Jacob’s father was an innkeeper and brewer himself. Equipped with German brewing knowledge and tradition passed down from his family, Jacob started his brewery in 1867 in the logging town of Chippewa Falls. Its rich soil was perfect for growing hops and grains, and the pure water that ran through the town was a perfect ingredient for crafting beer.
When they started off, Jacob Leinenkugel and business partner, John Miller, were the only employees. Jacob brewed the beer, and John delivered it. In 1884 John sold his share of the company to Jacob. With the help of his wife, Josephine, and their family the brewery grew. In 1890 a new four-story brewhouse was built. Sadly, that same year Josephine passed away. Though saddened by the loss of his wife, Jacob continued to expand the brewery, adding an icehouse, three-story malt house, bottling house, cooper shop and barns.
After Jacob Leinenkugel’s death in 1899, his son-in-law, Henry Casper, served as president. Then, following in his father’s footsteps, his eldest son Mathias Jacob “Matt” Leinenkugel (b. 1866 d.1926) took over as brewery president in 1907, followed by Jacob’s daughter, Susan Leinenkugel Mayer in 1927. Under the guidance of the second generation, Leinenkugel’s growing market blossomed. Several generations of Leinenkugels later, the brewery is still churning out beer. The company produces Leinenkugel’s, Leinenkugel Genuine Bock, Leinenkugel Light, Leinenkugel’s Limited, and Leinenkugel’s Red. In the past, the main line comprised light lagers, typically in the American style.

IMAGE: Jacob Leinenkugel and John Miller, Photo Courtesy Volume One

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Brewery, Person, U.S. History

Beginning of the Siebel Institute

Zymotechnic Institute Postcard c.1910

Dr. John Ewald Siebel founded the Zymotechnic Institute in 1868. He was born on September 17, 1845, in Germany. He earned his doctorate before moving to Chicago 1866. In 1868 he opened John E. Siebel’s Chemical Laboratory, which soon developed into a research station and school for the brewing sciences.
In 1872, as the company moved into new facilities on Belden Avenue on the north side of Chicago, the name was changed to the Siebel Institute of Technology. By 1907 there were five regular courses: a six-month Brewers’ Course, a two-month Post Graduate Course, a three-month Engineers’ Course, a two-month Maltsters’ Course and a two-month Bottlers’ Course. With the approach of prohibition, the Institute diversified and added courses in baking, refrigeration, engineering, milling, carbonated beverages and other related topics. On December 20, 1919, just twenty-seven days before prohibition became effective, Dr. J. E. Siebel passed away.
The mission of the institute is to “promote the progress of the industries based on fermentation, through instruction, investigation, analysis and otherwise.” Today it offers the general public various courses designed to expand their knowledge of the brewing industry. Students include both experienced and inexperienced brewers, allied industry personnel, wholesalers, importers, brewery executives from marketing departments, homebrewers, microbrewers, pub brewers, and those interested in starting a brewing business. Courses range from 3 days to 3 months in length.

IMAGE: Zymotechnic Institute Postcard c.1910

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Brewing Process, Person, U.S. History

Becks Brewery Founded

Heinrich Beck (Library of Congress)After a decade as an immigrant in the United States where he learned the brewing trade, Heinrich Beck returned to his native country of Germany. When Luder Rutenberg, Heinrich Beck, and Thomas May founded their brewery on June 27, 1873, under the name Kaiserbrauerei Beck & May, located on the riverbanks in Bremen, a city in the North of Germany. On October 1, 1875 Thomas May resigned from the company, and the company was renamed Kaiser brewery Beck & Co.
Beck brought to the company a method he had developed for keeping beer fresh longer, a development that would give the new company a decided advantage in the export market. Beck’s rapidly gained recognition in foreign markets. It won the gold medal for Best Continental (European) Beer at the 1876 World Exposition in Philadelphia.
In the late 19th century, the Beck brewery merged with two other local breweries, Bier-brauerei Wilhelm Remmer and Hemelinger Aktienbrauerei, prominent business leader Lueder Rutenberg incorporated the company as Brauerei Beck & Co. In 1921, the brewery of Beck and company formed a partnership with another Bremen brewery, Brauerei C. H. Haake & Co. The two companies divided the market, with the Beck brewery agreeing to produce beer for the export market under the brand name of Beck’s, while Haake-Beck brewery would sell its products under the names Haake-Beck, Remmer, and Hemelinger in the domestic German market. Beck’s Bremen-brewed beer was not available in Germany until 1949. The Haake-Beck brewery was later made a subsidiary of Beck & Co., and Brauerei Beck became the largest privately owned brewery in Germany.

IMAGE: Heinrich Beck (Library of Congress)

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Brewery, Person

Coors Brewery Founded

Adolph Coors, 1925Adolph Coors, or Kuhrs, was another German who migrated to the USA, arriving in 1868 and finally settling in Denver, Colorado, five years later. Unlike Eberhard Anheuser, Coors was a brewer by trade, with beer-making experience in his homeland. After buying a recipe for a Pilsner-style beer from a Czech immigrant William Silhan, along with his partner Jacob Schueler —Coors invested $2,000, Schuler provided $18,000—opened the Golden Brewery where it still stands today, in Golden, Jefferson County, at the foot of the Rocky Mountains. In 1880 he bought out his partner and the brewery became known as Adolph Coors Golden Brewery.
The Coors Brewing Company managed to survive Prohibition relatively intact. Years before the Volstead Act went into effect nationwide, Adolph Coors with sons Adolph Jr., Grover, and Herman established the Adolph Coors Brewing and Manufacturing Company, which included Herold Porcelain and other ventures. The brewery itself was converted into a malted milk and near beer production facility. Coors sold much of the malted milk to the Mars candy company for the production of sweets. Manna, the company’s non-alcoholic beer replacement, was a near beer similar to current non-alcoholic beverages. However, Coors and his sons relied heavily on the porcelain company as well as a cement and real estate company to keep the Coors Brewing Company afloat. By 1933, after the end of Prohibition, the Coors brewery was one of only a handful of breweries that had survived.

IMAGE: Adolph Coors, 1925

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Brewery, Person, U.S. History

Heineken Brewery Founded

Gerard Adriaan Heineken

Gerard Adriaan Heineken (b.1841 d.1893) was looking to get into the beer business. In 1863 he convinced his wealthy mother that there would be fewer problems with alcoholism in the Netherlands if the Dutch could be induced to drink beer instead of gin. His mother bought De Hooiberg (The Haystack), a brewery that had been operating since 1592. At the age of 22 Gerard Heineken was running the largest brewery in Amsterdam.
Heineken proved to be an astute brewer and businessman. Sales multiplied within a few years and in 1867 he started work on a sprawling new brewery. Six years later work was started on a brewery in Rotterdam. In 1873 Heineken developed a new cooling technique for wort that eliminated a brewer’s traditional dependence on seasonal ice. Heineken commenced year-round brewing.
Heineken traveled throughout Europe in search of better raw materials. In 1879 he hired a former student of Louis Pasteur, Dr. Elion, to work in the Heineken’s laboratory — unique in the brewing world at the time. Dr. Elion developed a specific yeast cell, which yields the alcohol in beer, which came to be known as the Heineken A yeast. Still the primary ingredient in Heineken today the new yeast gave Heineken excellent consistency in its expanding range of breweries.

IMAGE: Gerard Adriaan Heineken

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Brewery, Person

First Japanese Breweries

Japanese Breweries, Kirin, Sapporo, Asahi

In Japan, American beers sold well during the mid-nineteenth century, before being eclipsed by British and German imports. The American in large part responsible for renewing trade relations with Japan, Commodore Matthew Perry, brought several cases of beer to Japan as a gift for the Tokugawa Shogunate. The beverage was so well liked that the Japanese government soon decided to establish a brewing industry. After an extensive search for a suitable area, wild hops were found growing on the island of Hokkaido, the northernmost island in the Japanese archipelago. As a result, in 1876 the Commissioner-General for the development of Hokkaido founded Japan’s first brewery in the town of Sapporo. Most Japanese brewing enterprises were initially owned by foreign interests. A truly domestic beer-making industry only developed during the last three decades of the century, when Japan’s three largest brewing concerns were all established.

In 1870, an American, William Copeland (born Johan Bartinius Thoresen in Tromøy, in southern Norway, in May 1834) founded the Spring Valley Brewery in the settlement of Yamate, Yokohama. Copeland continued brewing by himself until 1882 ,when the business went bankrupt. Two years later, on July 1884, the brewery was sold by the US Marshall for $11,500. The Brewery was reopened with mixed Japanese and foreign investment in 1885 as Japan Brewery Co., Ltd. The company quickly built its own brewery, taking advantage of the site’s water supply. The new concern eventually launched its “Kirin beer” in 1888, and changed its name to Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd. in 1907.

Sapporo, the oldest Japanese brand of beer was first brewed in Sapporo, Japan, in 1876. The company begin in Sapporo, Hokkaido, during the Meiji period, where the Hokkaido Development Commission (Kaitakushi) established many businesses. The administrative government brought into its ranks Seibe Nakagawa, a Japanese beer brewer who had trained in the art in Germany. Construction of the brewery began in June of 1876, and the Kaitakushi Beer Brewery was completed in September. The beer was cold-brewed—a German technique for fermenting and aging beer at low temperature—and referred to as Sapporo Beer. Featured on the label is the Kaitakushi logo, the North Star, which is a traditional symbol of Sapporo Beer. In 1886 the company changed its name to Sapporo Brewery.

The Osaka Beer Brewing Company was established in 1889, by Komakichi Torii who had a grand dream of introducing beer to Japan. In 1888 Hiizu Ikuta was sent to Germany by Osaka Beer Brewing Company to study brewing at the famous School of Weihenstephen in Bavaria. He returned the following year and was appointed manager and technical chief of the newly opened Suita Brewery, one of the individual breweries controlled by Osaka. In 1892, his creation, Asahi Beer, was released for sale. Asahi or rising sun was named with the pride of a beer from the land of the rising sun, symbolizing promise and growth as the morning sun rises. Asahi Beer is an instant bestseller, with demand outstripping supply.

IMAGE: Commodore Matthew Perry from Great Lakes Beer Commodore Perry, Kirin Brewery Logo, Sapporo Brewery Logo, Asahi Brewery Logo

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Brewery, Person

Budweiser Introduced

Budweiser logo 1876 1942In 1876, Budweiser Lager Beer made its debut during the nationwide centennial celebration of the American Declaration of Independence of 1776. Over-riding the American preference for English Ales and German Lagers at that time, Busch chose to showcase his newly developed Pale Bohemian Lager and advertised it as “the United States’ first national beer.”

Thus was born the connection with Budweiser and American patriotism that continues until the present. To be an American in the image of astute advertising from 1876 forward has been to drink a Pale Lager made with about 30 percent corn malt, as opposed to 100 percent barley or wheat malt, and to drink it to the exclusion of all other categories or styles of beer. One taste became fit for all.

IMAGE: The very first Budweiser logo was composed of a rectangular badge with cursive lettering, where the “Budweiser Lager Beer” was placed on the top line and featured the largest size. The ornate red coat of arms was located above the rectangle and had two wide ribbons coming out of it. It was an elegant and traditional for its time tag. Image Courtesy

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Brewery, Event, Inventions & Innovations, U.S. History

St. Louis Refrigerator Car Company

Anheuser Busch Reefer photo pre 1911.To further maintain freshness for a longer time and a greater distance, Busch developed iced “beer railroad cars” and refrigerator cars for long-distance shipping. In short order, the Budweiser brand blanketed the United States.
The St. Louis Refrigerator Car Company was a private refrigerator car line established on February 3, 1878, by Anheuser-Busch, the brewer’s first subsidiary, and is claimed to be the first use of refrigerated rail cars (ice). SLRX was formed to facilitate large-scale distribution of the Anheuser-Busch’s products via the U. S. rail network. The SLRX not only built its own bunkerless reefers, but maintained and operated them as well.
In 1919 the firm was acquired by Manufacturers Railway Company, another A-B transportation subsidiary that provided switching service to the brewery and interchange connection with the common carrier railroads serving St. Louis.
The SLRX fleet was dominated by cars originally built during 1911–1913, either with truss rods or deep fishbelly center sills. Many of the cars were refurbished or rebuilt over the years, and in the early 1950s there were about 300 of the fishbelly center sill cars, while there were only about 100 of the truss-rod cars (with steel center sills added after 1930).

IMAGE: Anheuser Busch Reefer photo pre 1911.

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Brewery, Event, Inventions & Innovations, U.S. History

Emil Christian Hansen - Saccharomyces pastorianus

Emil Christen Hansen in his LabEmil Christian Hansen on the other hand soon found his ideas being applied after he introduced the concept and the technology for achieving pure yeast culture at Carlsberg in 1883. Within ten years Hansen’s yeast propagation plants had been installed in 173 breweries in 23 different countries. By then, Alfred Jorgensen was supplying some 65 other breweries with pure yeast from his laboratory in Copenhagen.
The laboratory of the Carlsberg Foundation is created in Copenhagen in 1876 by the Danish brewer Jacob Christian Jacobsen in 1875. He was trained in bottom fermentation brewing by the brewmaster Sedlmayr of the Spaten brewery in Munich.
After introducing the concept and technology to achieve a culture of pure yeast at Carlsberg Brewery in 1883, the biologist Emil Christian Hansen and his ideas are quickly used by other brewers in Europe and USA. In ten years, Hansen’s devices to propagate pure yeasts are settled in 173 breweries from 23 countries. Meanwhile, Alfred Jorgensen had provided some 65 breweries in Europe with strains of pure yeasts from his laboratory in Copenhagen.

IMAGE: Emil Christian Hansen in his Lab

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Brewing Process, Event, Inventions & Innovations, Person

F.X. Matt Brewing Co. Founded

Francis Xavier Matt Sr.In 1888 F.X. Matt Brewing Co. (originally West End Brewing Co. until 1980) is founded in West Utica, N.Y. by Baden, Germany-born Francis Xavier Matt Sr.; in 1933 after surviving Prohibition by selling Utica Club soft drinks, it sells Utica Club brand pilsner beer, which becomes the first beer officially sold after Prohibition; ads feature talking beer steins Schultz and Dooley, voiced by comedian Jonathan Winters, with the jingle “It’s tough to argue over a Utica Club, ’cause they put too much love into it”; in 1982 they introduce Matt’s Premium Light Beer, followed in 1985 by Saranac brand beer (“The Spirit of the Adirondacks), which grows to 30+ different products.
The F. X. Matt Brewing Co. is one of a handful of old American breweries to remain in the founding family’s hands today. The current brewmaster is Francis Xavier Matt II, grandson of the founder, F. X. Matt.
The company was founded in 1888, one of 12 breweries in Utica at the time. In those days, it was known as the West End Brewery, since it served the west end of Utica. Matt outlasted all of its Utica competitors (and just about everyone else in the region) and still distributes its Matt’s Premium and Utica Club brands widely in New York State.

IMAGE: Francis Xavier Matt Sr.

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Brewing Process, Event, Inventions & Innovations, Person

Crown Cork Bottle Caps

William PainterWilliam Painter (b. 1838 d.1906) was an Irish-American mechanical engineer, inventor and the founder of Crown Holdings, Inc. He most notably invented the crown cork bottle cap and bottle opener. Painter was born in Ireland to Dr. Edward Painter and Louisa Gilpin Painter. He was the third of seven children, although two died in infancy. At the age of 20, he emigrated to the United States in search of better opportunities. He moved to Baltimore, Maryland in 1865 to begin a career as a foreman at the Murrill & Keizer’s machine shop.
Painter invented three very important bottle-stoppers, the first of which was the Triumph. This consisted of a rubber stopper with a protected facing, and a wire device for operating it. Soon after its introduction Painter invented and patented the Bottle Seal, the first single-use stopper which was ever offered to the bottling trade, other than corks. On February 2nd, 1892, Painter patented the Crown Cork and by 1898, had created the first foot-powered crowner device to sell to bottlers and retailers so that they could seal the bottles with his caps quickly and easily.  His syruper-crowner, allowed a good operator to fill and cap 24 bottles a minute.
Painter patented 85 inventions, including the common bottle cap, the bottle opener, a machine for crowning bottles, a paper-folding machine, a safety ejection seat for passenger trains, and a machine for detecting counterfeit currency. He was inducted to the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2006.

IMAGE: William Painter

nathan dane
Brewing Process, Inventions & Innovations, Person, U.S. History

Anti-Saloon League Founded

Wayne Wheeler, Anti-Saloon League PresidentAs a result of the ongoing corruption, the Anti-Saloon League (ASL) was founded in 1893 by Doctor Howard H. Russell, a Congregational minister and Christian statesman, in Oberlin, Ohio It began life as a state organization, two years later became the Anti-Saloon League of America. It would turn out to be the most effective political group for the dry side. It had only one cause, a dry United States.
The ASL was organized as a business, it had a headquarters, a full time staff, a sufficient financing and a printing plant to spread propaganda. Wayne Bidwell Wheeler became the de facto leader of the Anti-Saloon League and wielded awesome power, as described by one historian: “Wayne B. Wheeler controlled six congresses, dictated to two presidents of the United States, directed legislation in most of the States of the Union, picked the candidates for the more important elective and federal offices, held the balance of power in both Republican and Democratic parties, distributed more patronage than any dozen other men, supervised a federal bureau from outside without official authority, and was recognized by friend and foe alike as the most masterful and powerful single individual in the United States “

IMAGE: Wayne Wheeler, Anti-Saloon League President

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Organization, Person, Temperance, U.S. History

Anchor Brewing Co. Founded

E F Baruth 1886The rich history of Anchor Brewing can be traced all the way back to the California gold rush, when German brewer Gottlieb Brekle arrived in San Francisco with his family in 1849. In 1871 Gottlieb Brekle bought an old beer-and-billiards saloon on Pacific Street near Russian Hill for $3,500, transforming it into the American brewery that, twenty-five years later, would be renamed Anchor.
German brewer Ernst F. Baruth and his son-in-law, Otto Schinkel, Jr., bought the old brewery on Pacific (the first of six Anchor locations around the City over the years) and named it Anchor. No one knows why Baruth and Schinkel chose the name Anchor, except, perhaps, for its indirect but powerful allusion to the booming Port of San Francisco.
In an uncanny year of misfortune, co-owner Ernst Baruth died suddenly in February. Two months later, the devastating fire following San Francisco’s great earthquake consumed Anchor Brewery. In January 1907, just as Anchor Brewery was opening at its new location south of Market Street, Otto Schinkel, Jr., was run over by a streetcar. Fortunately, German brewers Joseph Kraus and August Meyer, along with liquor store owner Henry Tietjen, were able to keep Anchor going.
After Prohibition ended in April 1933, owner Joe Kraus began brewing Anchor Steam® Beer once again after a hiatus of thirteen years. As luck would have it, his newly reopened Brewery went up in smoke the following February. He re-opened Anchor in an old brick building with a new partner, Joe Allen, just a few blocks from where the historic Brewery is today.

IMAGE: E. F. Baruth 1886

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Brewery, Person, U.S. History
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