Specific gravity is a measure of the density of the beer wort (unfermented beer) compared to water. It indicates the amount of sugar present, which affects the alcohol content. Original Gravity (OG) measures the sugar content before fermentation, while Final Gravity (FG) measures it after fermentation.
Off-flavors are undesirable tastes or aromas that can develop in beer due to various factors like improper brewing techniques, contamination, or aging. Common off-flavors include skunkiness, diacetyl (buttery flavor), acetaldehyde (green apple flavor), and oxidation (stale or cardboard-like taste).
Proper pouring techniques can enhance the presentation and taste of beer. General guidelines include holding the glass at a slight angle while pouring, allowing a moderate amount of foam (head) to form, and serving the appropriate amount in the glass. Pouring methods can vary depending on the beer style.
Malting is the process of converting barley (or other grains) into malt. It involves steeping the grains in water, allowing them to germinate, and then halting the germination by drying them with hot air. This activates enzymes that convert starches into fermentable sugars, which are essential for brewing.
Beer culture encompasses the social, historical, and cultural aspects associated with beer. This includes the traditions, brewing techniques, beer festivals, and the role of beer in different societies. Exploring beer culture can be fascinating and provide insights into regional beer styles and customs.
The Brewers Association’s beer style guidelines reflect, as much as possible, historical significance, authenticity, or a high profile in the current commercial beer market. Often, the historical significance is not clear, or a new beer type in a current market may represent only a passing fad and is quickly forgotten. For these reasons, the addition of a style or the modification of an existing one is not undertaken lightly and is the product of research, consultation, and consideration of market actualities, and may take place over several years.
Since 1979 the Brewers Association has provided beer style descriptions as a reference for brewers and beer competition organizers. Much of the early work was based on the assistance and contributions of beer journalist Michael Jackson; more recently these guidelines were greatly expanded, compiled, and edited by Charlie Papazian. The task of creating a realistic set of guidelines is always complex. The beer style guidelines developed by the Brewers Association use sources from the commercial brewing industry, beer analyses, and consultations with beer industry experts and knowledgeable beer enthusiasts as resources for information
Color: Straw to gold
Clarity: Chill haze should not be present
Perceived Malt Aroma & Flavor: Malt sweetness is absent
Perceived Hop Aroma & Flavor: Not present to very low
Perceived Bitterness: Very low
Fermentation Characteristics: Sugar adjuncts are often used to lighten the body and ﬂavor, sometimes contributing to very low to low fruity esters such as apple or pear. DMS, diacetyl, and acetaldehyde should not be present.
Additional notes: Sugar, corn, rice, and other cereal grains or carbohydrates sources are used as adjuncts.
Original Gravity (°Plato) 1.038-1.046 (9.5-11.4 °Plato)
Apparent Extract/Final Gravity (°Plato) 1.006-1.010 (1.5-2.6 °Plato)
Alcohol by Weight (Volume) 3.2%-4.0% (4.1%-5.1%)
Bitterness (IBU) 9-18
Color SRM (EBC) 2-5 (4-10 EBC)
Color: Straw to gold
Clarity: Appearance should be clear. Chill haze should not be present
Perceived Malt Aroma & Flavor: Residual malt aroma and ﬂavor may be present at low to medium-low levels
Perceived Hop Aroma & Flavor: Low to medium
Perceived Bitterness: Low to medium
Fermentation Characteristics: Very low levels of DMS aroma and ﬂavor are acceptable. Fruity esters, acetaldehyde, and diacetyl should not be present.
Body: Low to medium
Additional notes: These beers are often brewed with rice, corn, wheat, or other grains. Sugar adjuncts may also be used.
Original Gravity (°Plato) 1.040-1.052 (10-12.9 °Plato)
Apparent Extract/Final Gravity (°Plato) 1.008-1.014 (2.1-3.6 °Plato)
Alcohol by Weight (Volume) 3.6%-4.2% (4.6%-5.3%)
Bitterness (IBU) 17-40
Color SRM (EBC) 3-6 (6-12 EBC)
Clarity: Opaque. When clarity is perceivable, chill haze should not be present.
Perceived Malt Aroma & Flavor: Malt sweetness is medium-low to medium-high. Distinctive malt aromas and flavors of caramelized sugars, dark sugars, and licorice are present. Roast malt attributes may be present at low levels, but any bitterness or astringency should be in harmony with other flavor aspects.
Perceived Hop Aroma & Flavor: Very low. Floral hop aroma can complement aromatics.
Perceived Bitterness: Low to medium-low
Fermentation Characteristics: Due to its alcoholic strength, there may be very low to low levels of complex alcohol aromas and ﬂavors, and higher levels of fruitiness suggestive of berries, grapes, or plums, but not banana. Fruity esters, DMS, and diacetyl should not be present.
Body: Medium to full
Additional notes: Baltic Porter is brewed with lager yeast and fermented and lagered cold producing a smooth beer. A low level of oxidation, if harmonious with other flavor components, is acceptable.
Original Gravity (°Plato) 1.072-1.092 (17.5-22 °Plato)
Apparent Extract/Final Gravity (°Plato) 1.016-1.022 (4.1-5.6 °Plato)
Alcohol by Weight (Volume) 6.0%-7.4% (7.6%-9.3%)
Bitterness (IBU) 35-40
Color SRM (EBC) 20+ (40+ EBC)